Adverse Events

“C3, 4, 5 Keeps the Diaphragm Alive.” Is phrenic nerve palsy part of the pathophysiological mechanism in strangulation and hanging? Should diaphragm paralysis be excluded in survived cases?: A review of the literature.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19935388

[Pseudoaneurysm of Neck External Carotid Artery Related to Chiropractic Manipulation].

Okada M, Uyama A, Okamura Y, Miyake S, Terazono T, Yamamoto K, Takaishi Y, Kondoh T. No Shinkei Geka. 2019 Jul;47(7):799-804. doi: 10.11477/mf.1436204026.

[Retrospective analysis and prevention strategies for accidents associated with cervical manipulation in China].

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23256360

A model framework for patient safety training in chiropractic: a literature synthesis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712793

A replication of the study ‘Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review’

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3502141/?tool=pmcentrez

Active versus passive adverse event reporting after pediatric chiropractic manual therapy: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

Katherine A. Pohlman, Linda Carroll, Ross T. Tsuyuki, Lisa Hartling and Sunita Vohra. Trials 2017 18:575. 1 December 2017. Doi:10.1186/s13063-017-2301-0

Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1905885/?tool=pmcentrez

Adverse events after manual therapy among patients seeking care for neck and/or back pain: a randomized controlled trial

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995636/?tool=pmcentrez

Adverse events after manual therapy among patients seeking care for neck and/or back pain: a randomized controlled trial

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/15/77

Adverse events associated with paediatric use of complementary and alternative medicine: Results of a Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program survey

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735381/?tool=pmcentrez

Adverse Events Associated With Pediatric Spinal Manipulation: A Systematic Review

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0025314

Adverse events associated with the use of cervical manipulation and mobilization for the treatment of neck pain in adults: a systematic review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20227325

Adverse Events Following Chiropractic Care for Subjects With Neck or Low-Back Pain: Do The Benefits Outweigh the Risks?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18722202

Adverse events in a chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial for migraineurs.

Chaibi A, Benth JŠ, Tuchin PJ, Russell MB. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2017 Mar 14;29:66-71. doi: 10.1016/j.msksp.2017.03.003.

An analysis of the etiology of cervical artery dissections: 1994 to 2003.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16226631

An Etiologic Model to Help Explain the Pathogenesis of Cervical Artery Dissection: Implications for Cervical Manipulation

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16690389

Arterial dissections following cervical manipulation: the chiropractic experience.

Haldeman S, Carey P, Townsend M, Papadopoulos C. CMAJ. 2001 Oct 2;165(7):905-6.

Assignment of adverse event indexing terms in randomized clinical trials involving spinal manipulative therapy: an audit of records in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases

Lindsay M. Gorrell, Roger M. Engel, Reidar P. Lystad and Benjamin T. Brown. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 14 March 2017. DOI: 10.1186/s12874-017-0320-x

Association Between Utilization of Chiropractic Services for Treatment of Low Back Pain and Risk of Adverse Drug Events

James M. Whedon, Andrew W.J. Toler, Justin M. Goehl, Louis A. Kazal. JMPT. May 26, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2018.01.004

Benign adverse events following chiropractic care for neck pain are associated with worse short-term outcomes but not worse outcomes at three months.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19050572

Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis due to cervical chiropractic manipulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25692510

Case Misclassification in Studies of Spinal Manipulation and Arterial Dissection

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4157954

Cervical arterial dysfunction and manual therapy: a critical literature review to inform professional practice.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18280769

Cervical Artery Dissection. A Comparison of Highly Dynamic Mechanisms: Manipulation versus Motor Vehicle Collision

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15726036

Characterizing Adverse Events Reported Immediately After Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment.

Degenhardt BF, Johnson JC, Brooks WJ, Norman L. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2018 Mar 1;118(3):141-149. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2018.033.

Chiropractic and stroke: association or causation?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23952462

Chiropractic care and risk for acute lumbar disc herniation: a population-based self-controlled case series study

Cesar A. Hincapié, George A. Tomlinson, Pierre Côté, Y. Raja Rampersaud, Alejandro R. Jadad, J. David Cassidy. European Spine Journal. 16 Oct 2017. doi:10.1007/s00586-017-5325-y

Chiropractic care and risk for acute lumbar disc herniation: a population-based self-controlled case series study.

Hincapié CA, Tomlinson GA, Côté P, Rampersaud YR, Jadad AR, Cassidy JD. Eur Spine J. 2018 Jul;27(7):1526-1537. doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-5325-y.

Chiropractic care and the risk of vertebrobasilar stroke: results of a case–control study in U.S. commercial and Medicare Advantage populations

http://www.chiromt.com/content/23/1/19

Chiropractic Manipulation and Stroke: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/32/5/1054.full

Chiropractic manipulation: reasons for concern?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17904731

Chiropractic spinal manipulation and the risk for acute lumbar disc herniation: a belief elicitation study.

Hincapié CA, Cassidy JD, Côté P, Rampersaud YR, Jadad AR, Tomlinson GA. Eur Spine J. 2018 Jul;27(7):1517-1525. doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-5295-0.

Chiropractic: a critical evaluation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18280103

Clinical perceptions of the risk of vertebral artery dissection after cervical manipulation: the effect of referral bias.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14589464

Clinical Reasoning: Partial Horner syndrome and upper right limb symptoms following chiropractic manipulation

http://www.neurology.org/content/84/21/e175.long

Clinicians’ Expectations of the Benefits and Harms of Treatments, Screening, and Tests: A Systematic Review.

Hoffmann TC, Del Mar C. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Mar 1;177(3):407-419. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.8254.

Considerations to improve the safety of cervical spine manual therapy

Nathan Hutting, Roger Kerry, Michel W. Coppieters, Gwendolijne GM. Scholten-Peeters. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. November 3, 2017. DOI:10.1016/j.msksp.2017.11.003

Craniocervical Arterial Dissection in Children: Diagnosis and Treatment

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3297486/?tool=pmcentrez

Creating European guidelines for Chiropractic Incident Reporting and Learning Systems (CIRLS): relevance and structure

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3079683/?tool=pmcentrez

Deaths after chiropractic: a review of published cases.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20642715

Defining adverse events in manual therapy: an exploratory qualitative analysis of the patient perspective.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21377403

Diaphragmatic Paralysis Following Cervical Chiropractic Manipulation: Case Report and Review

http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1079450

Diaphragmatic paralysis following minor cervical trauma.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299741

Do adverse events after manual therapy for back and/or neck pain have an impact on the chance to recover? A cohort study

Vesa Tabell, Ina M. Tarkka, Lena W. Holm and Eva Skillgate. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2019 27:27. 12 June 2019. DOI: 10.1186/s12998-019-0248-9

Does case misclassification threaten the validity of studies investigating the relationship between neck manipulation and vertebral artery dissection stroke? No.

Murphy DR, Schneider MJ, Perle SM, Bise CG, Timko M, Haas M. Chiropr Man Therap. 2016 Nov 5;24:43.

Does case misclassification threaten the validity of studies investigating the relationship between neck manipulation and vertebral artery dissection stroke? Yes.

Paulus JK, Thaler DE. Chiropr Man Therap. 2016 Nov 5;24:42.

Examining vertebrobasilar artery stroke in two Canadian provinces.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18204389

Frequency and clinical predictors of adverse reactions to chiropractic care in the UCLA neck pain study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15990659

How do chiropractors manage clinical risk? A questionnaire study

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684541/?tool=pmcentrez

International framework for examination of the cervical region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction prior to Orthopaedic Manual Therapy intervention.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378471

Ischemic stroke after cervical spine injury: analysis of 11,005 patients using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462534

Lumbar disc herniation and cauda equina syndrome following spinal manipulative therapy: A review of six court decisions in Canada

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24485443

Lumbar disc herniation and cauda equina syndrome following spinal manipulative therapy: a review of six court decisions in Canada.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24485443

Manipulation of the cervical spine: a systematic review of case reports of serious adverse events, 1995-2001.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12041633

Manual Therapy and Cervical Arterial Dysfunction, Directions for the Future: A Clinical Perspective

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2565074/?tool=pmcentrez

Migraine as a risk factor for young patients with ischemic stroke: a case-control study.

Abanoz Y, Gülen Abanoz Y, Gündüz A, Uludüz D, İnce B, Yavuz B, Göksan B. Neurol Sci. 2017 Jan 12. doi: 10.1007/s10072-017-2810-3.

Mobile Phone-Induced Vertebral Artery Dissection.

Elavarasi A, Haq TM, Thahira T, Bineesh C, Kancharla LB. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2019 Jul-Sep;22(3):349-350. doi: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_123_19.

Neurological complications of cervical spine manipulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297923/?tool=pmcentrez

Outcomes from magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed symptomatic cervical disk herniation patients treated with high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulative therapy: a prospective cohort study with 3-month follow-up.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23948425

Outcomes of usual chiropractic, harm & efficacy, the ouch study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3224760/?tool=pmcentrez

Outcomes of usual chiropractic. The OUCH randomized controlled trial of adverse events.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23778372

Possible adverse events in children treated by manual therapy: a review

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890687/?tool=pmcentrez

Predictors of a favorable outcome in patients treated by chiropractors for neck pain.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18520940

Predictors of adverse events following chiropractic care for patients with neck pain.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18328935

Prevalence of adverse effects among students taking technique classes: A retrospective study

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211586

Quantifying strain in the vertebral artery with simultaneous motion analysis of the head and neck: a preliminary investigation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25457973

Recognition of Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection Preempting Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Patient Presenting With Neck Pain and Headache for Chiropractic Care

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4322017/?tool=pmcentrez

Risk Factors and Clinical Presentation of Cervical Arterial Dissection: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Case-Control Study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25996363

Risk factors and clinical presentation of craniocervical arterial dissection: A prospective study

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3441544/?tool=pmcentrez

RISK MANAGEMENT FOR CHIROPRACTORS AND OSTEOPATHS

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2051301/?tool=pmcentrez

Risk of Carotid Stroke after Chiropractic Care: A Population-Based Case-Crossover Study.

Cassidy JD, Boyle E, Côté P, Hogg-Johnson S, Bondy SJ, Haldeman S. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016 Nov 21. pii: S1052-3057(16)30434-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.10.031.

Risk of traumatic injury associated with chiropractic spinal manipulation in Medicare Part B beneficiaries aged 66 to 99 years.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494315

Risk of vertebrobasilar stroke and chiropractic care: results of a population-based case-control and case-crossover study.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18204390

Safety of cervical spine manipulation: are adverse events preventable and are manipulations being performed appropriately? A review of 134 case reports

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3360486/?tool=pmcentrez

Safety of chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine: a prospective national survey.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17906581

Safety of thrust joint manipulation in the thoracic spine: a systematic review.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26309386

SafetyNET: An interdisciplinary research program to support a safety culture for spinal manipulation therapy

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876382014000912

Serious Adverse Events and Spinal Manipulative Therapy of the Low Back Region: A Systematic Review of Cases.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23787298

Serious Adverse Events and Spinal Manipulative Therapy of the Low Back Region: A Systematic Review of Cases.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23787298

Should we abandon cervical spine manipulation for mechanical neck pain? No

http://www.bmj.com/content/344/bmj.e3680

Spinal epidural hematoma in a patient on chronic anticoagulation therapy performing self-neck manipulation: a case report.

Cooper J, Battaglia P, Reiter T. Chiropr Man Therap. 2019 Sep 19;27:41. doi: 10.1186/s12998-019-0264-9.

Standardization of Adverse Event Terminology and Reporting in Orthopaedic Physical Therapy: Application to the Cervical Spine

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20710083

Stroke, cerebral artery dissection, and cervical spine manipulation therapy.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12195461

Symptomatic reactions, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction associated with upper cervical chiropractic care: A prospective, multicenter, cohort study

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3204272/?tool=pmcentrez

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Chiropractic Care and Cervical Artery Dissection: No Evidence for Causation.

Church EW, Sieg EP, Zalatimo O, Hussain NS, Glantz M, Harbaugh RE. Cureus. 2016 Feb

The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery Dissection: A Systematic Review of the Literature

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24387889

The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery Dissection: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24387889

The Perils of Complementary Alternative Medicine

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4128590/?tool=pmcentrez

The Quality of Reports on Cervical Arterial Dissection following Cervical Spinal Manipulation

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0059170

The relation between the spatial distribution of vertebral artery compromise and exposure to cervical manipulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18185906

The risk associated with spinal manipulation: an overview of reviews.

Nielsen SM, Tarp S, Christensen R, Bliddal H, Klokker L, Henriksen M. Syst Rev. 2017 Mar 24;6(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s13643-017-0458-y.

The safety of spinal manipulative therapy in children under 10 years: a rapid review

Melissa Corso, Carol Cancelliere, Silvano Mior, Anne Taylor-Vaisey and Pierre Côté. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2020 28:12. 25 February 2020. DOI: 10.1186/s12998-020-0299-y

Thrombolysis for atlantoaxial dislocation mimicking acute ischemic stroke: Case report and review.

Tsou A, Juan YH, Chen TY, Lin SK. Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Mar 27. pii: S0735-6757(19)30195-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2019.03.044.

Vertebral Artery Dissection in Sport: A Systematic Review.

Saw AE, McIntosh AS, Kountouris A, Newman P, Gaida JE. Sports Med. 2019 Apr;49(4):553-564. doi: 10.1007/s40279-019-01066-0.

Vertebral artery strains during high-speed, low amplitude cervical spinal manipulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22483611

What are the risks of manual treatment of the spine? A scoping review for clinicians

Gabrielle Swait and Rob Finch. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies . Dec 7. Doi:10.1186/s12998-017-0168-5

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