Lumbar DDx – Referred/radicular LBP

A diagnostic study in patients with sciatica establishing the importance of localization of worsening of pain during coughing, sneezing and straining to assess nerve root compression on MRI.

Verwoerd AJ, Mens J, El Barzouhi A, Peul WC, Koes BW, Verhagen AP. Eur Spine J. 2016 May

A study exploring the prevalence of Extremity Pain of Spinal Source (EXPOSS).

Rosedale R, Rastogi R, Kidd J, Lynch G, Supp G, Robbins SM. J Man Manip Ther. 2019 Sep 2:1-9. doi: 10.1080/10669817.2019.1661706.

Absent quadriceps reflex with distant toe flexor response: An underrecognized neurological sign.

Carvalho DZ, Boes CJ. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2016 Oct;149:44-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2016.06.018.

Accuracy of clinical tests in detecting disc herniation and nerve root compression in subjects with lumbar radicular symptoms.

Ekedahl H, Jönsson B, Annertz M, Frobell RB. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017 Dec 15. pii: S0003-9993(17)31401-6. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.11.006.

Anatomical etiology of “pseudo-sciatica” from superior cluneal nerve entrapment: a laboratory investigation

  Konno T, Aota Y, Kuniya H, Saito T, Qu N, Hayashi S, Kawata S, Itoh M. Journal of Pain Research. 1 November 2017. Doi:10.2147/JPR.S142115

Association between paraspinal muscle morphology, clinical symptoms and functional status in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

Fortin M, Lazáry À, Varga PP, Battié MC. Eur Spine J. 2017 Jul 26. doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-5228-y.

Association of Lumbar Spondylolisthesis With Low Back Pain and Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in a Population-based Cohort: The Wakayama Spine Study.

Ishimoto Y, Yoshimura N, Muraki S, Yamada H, Nagata K, Hashizume H, Takiguchi N, Minamide A, Oka H, Tanaka S, Kawaguchi H, Nakamura K, Akune T, Yoshida M. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Jun 1;42(11):E666-E671. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001960.

Clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with extreme low back pain or sciatica referred for spinal injection.

Kim Y, Lee E, Lee JW, Kang Y, Ahn JM, Kang HS. Neuroradiology. 2019 May 17. doi: 10.1007/s00234-019-02222-z.

Clinical diagnosis of upper lumbar disc herniation: Pain and/or numbness distribution are more useful for appropriate level diagnosis.

Kido T, Okuyama K, Chiba M, Sasaki H, Seki N, Kamo K, Miyakoshi N, Shimada Y. J Orthop Sci. 2016 Jul;21(4):419-424. doi: 10.1016/j.jos.2016.03.003.

Clinical Outcomes in Neurogenic Claudication Using a Multimodal Program for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Study of 49 Patients With Prospective Long-term Follow-up.

Chow NW, Southerst D, Wong JJ, Kopansky-Giles D, Ammendolia C. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2019 Apr 24. pii: S0161-4754(18)30125-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2018.11.004.

Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

Grøvle L, Haugen AJ, Ihlebaek CM, Keller A, Natvig B, Brox JI, Grotle M. J Psychosom Res. 2011 Jun;70(6):548-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.11.008.

Comparison of the history and physical examination for hip osteoarthritis and lumbar spinal stenosis

James Rainville, James V. Bono, Eric B. Laxer, David H. Kim, John M. Lavelle, Aage Indahl, David G. Borenstein, Andy J. Haig, Jeffrey N. Katz. The Spine Journal. January 29, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.spinee.2019.01.006

Comprehensive non-surgical treatment versus self-directed care to improve walking ability in lumbar spinal stenosis: A randomized trial.

Ammendolia C, Côté P, Southerst D, Schneider M, Budgell B, Bombardier C, Hawker G, Rampersaud YR. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Jun 20. pii: S0003-9993(18)30362-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.05.014.

Correlation between Findings in Physical Examination, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nerve Conduction Studies in Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Caused by Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation.

Yousif S, Musa A, Ahmed A, Abdelhai A. Adv Orthop. 2020 Jan 24;2020:9719813. doi: 10.1155/2020/9719813.

Diagnosis and treatment of sciatica

  Rikke K Jensen, Alice Kongsted, Per Kjaer, Bart Koes, BMJ 2019; 367 :l6273; 19 Nov 2019. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.l6273 

Dynamic balance in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis; a cross-sectional study

  Elisabeth Thornes, Hilde Stendal Robinson and Nina Køpke Vøllestad. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2018 19:192. 15 June 2018. doi: 10.1186/s12891-018-2111-x

Efficacy and harms of orally, intramuscularly or intravenously administered glucocorticoids for sciatica: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Abdel Shaheed C, Maher CG, Buchbinder R, Ng B, Enke O, Guzowski R, McLachlan AJ, Day RO, Richards B, Latimer J, Lin CC. Eur J Pain. 2019 Nov 12. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1505.

Epidemiological profiles of chronic low back and knee pain in middle-aged and elderly Japanese from the Murakami cohort.

Takahashi A, Kitamura K, Watanabe Y, Kobayashi R, Saito T, Takachi R, Kabasawa K, Oshiki R, Tsugane S, Iki M, Sasaki A, Yamazaki O, Nakamura K. J Pain Res. 2018 Dec 12;11:3161-3169. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S184746.

Facilitated Pro-Nociceptive Pain Mechanisms in Radiating Back Pain Compared with Localized Back Pain.

Vaegter HB, Palsson TS, Graven-Nielsen T. J Pain. 2017 Mar 23. pii: S1526-5900(17)30516-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2017.03.002.

Hip and Lumbar Spine Physical Examination Findings in People Presenting With Low Back Pain, With or Without Lower Extremity Pain.

Prather H, Cheng A, Steger-May K, Maheshwari V, Van Dillen L. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017 Mar;47(3):163-172. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2017.6567.

Factors affecting dynamic foraminal stenosis in the lumbar spine.

  Physical examination for the diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain and sciatica: a systematic review.

   Lumbar spinal stenosis-diagnosis and management of the aging spine.

Longitudinal construct validity and responsiveness of measures of walking capacity in individuals with lumbar spinal stenosis

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis–Specific Symptom Scale

  The pain provocation-based straight leg raise test for diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, lumbar radiculopathy, and/or sciatica: a systematic review of clinical utility.

  An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar disc herniation with radiculopathy

  Tactile allodynia in patients with lumbar radicular pain (sciatica).

   Relationship between lumbar spinal stenosis and psychosocial factors: a multicenter cross-sectional study (DISTO project).

Body Mass Index and Risk for Clinical Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Cohort Study.

  L5 Radiculopathy due to Foraminal Stenosis Accompanied With Vacuum Phenomena of the L5/S Disc on Radiography Images in Extension Position.

  Back pain’s association with vertebral end-plate signal changes in sciatica

Induced lumbosacral radicular symptom referral patterns: A descriptive study.

Furman MB, Johnson SC. Spine J. 2018 May 22. pii: S1529-9430(18)30254-7. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.05.029.

Is It Radiculopathy or Referred Pain? Buttock Pain in Spinal Stenosis Patients.

Shim DM, Kim TG, Koo JS, Kwon YH, Kim CS. Clin Orthop Surg. 2019 Mar;11(1):89-94. doi: 10.4055/cios.2019.11.1.89.

Is there a Correlation Between Degree of Radiologic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and its Clinical Manifestation?

Andrasinova T, Adamova B, Buskova J, Kerkovsky M, Jarkovsky J, Bednarik J. Clin Spine Surg. 2018 Jun 22. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000681.

Leg pain location and neurological signs relate to outcomes in primary care patients with low back pain

Lisbeth Hartvigsen Lise Hestbaek, Charlotte Lebouef-Yde, Werner Vach and Alice Kongsted BMC Musculoskeletal DisordersBMC 31 March 2017 DOI: 10.1186/s12891-017-1495-3

Leisure-time physical activity and sciatica: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Shiri R, Falah-Hassani K, Viikari-Juntura E, Coggon D. Eur J Pain. 2016 Apr 18 Lumbar Radiculopathy Confounded: Total Knee Arthroplasty Diminishes the Patellar Tendon Reflex.

Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management

Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management

NICE LBP and Sciatica guideline [NG59] Published date: November 2016

Measurement properties of walking outcome measures for neurogenic claudication: a systematic review

David B Anderson, Stephanie Mathieson, Jillian Eyles, Christopher G Maher, James Van Gelder, Christy C Tomkins-Lane, Carlo Ammendiola, Vida Bella, Manuela L Ferreira. The Spine Journal. April 12, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.spinee.2019.04.004

National Clinical Guidelines for non-surgical treatment of patients with recent onset low back pain or lumbar radiculopathy.

Stochkendahl MJ, Kjaer P, Hartvigsen J, Kongsted A, Aaboe J, Andersen M, Andersen MØ, Fournier G, Højgaard B, Jensen MB, Jensen LD, Karbo T, Kirkeskov L, Melbye M, Morsel-Carlsen L, Nordsteen J, Palsson TS, Rasti Z, Silbye PF, Steiness MZ, Tarp S, Vaagholt M. Eur Spine J. 2017 Apr 20. doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-5099-2.

Neuromuscular morphometric characteristics in low back pain with unilateral radiculopathy caused by disc herniation: An ultrasound imaging evaluation.

Sarafraz H, Hadian MR, Ayoobi Yazdi N, Olyaei G, Bagheri H, Jalaei S, Rasouli O. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2019 Feb 1;40:80-86. doi: 10.1016/j.msksp.2019.01.016.

Novel approach to characterising individuals with low back-related leg pain: cluster identification with latent class analysis and 12-month follow-up.

Stynes S, Konstantinou K, Ogollah R, Hay EM, Dunn KM. Pain. 2018 Jan 9. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001147.

Obesity and spinal epidural lipomatosis in cauda equina syndrome

  Duncan Cushnie, Jennifer C Urquhart, Kevin R Gurr, Fawaz Siddiqi, Christopher S Bailey. The Spine Journal. July 26, 2017.  DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2017.07.177

Paraspinal muscles density: a marker for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis?

Abbas J, Slon V, May H, Peled N, Hershkovitz I, Hamoud K. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016 Oct 10;17(1):422.

Prevalence of lumbar spinal stenosis in general and clinical populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Jensen RK, Jensen TS, Koes B, Hartvigsen J. Eur Spine J. 2020 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00586-020-06339-1.

Reliability of the Buttock Applied Strain test to uncover radicular pain in Low Back Pain patients.

Samolsky Dekel BG, Sorella MC, Vasarri A, Melotti RM. Pain Pract. 2020 Apr 1. doi: 10.1111/papr.12890.

Risk factors for sciatica leading to hospitalization.

Euro U, Knekt P, Rissanen H, Aromaa A, Karppinen J, Heliövaara M. Eur Spine J. 2018 Jul;27(7):1501-1508. doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-5182-8.

SHADES of grey – The challenge of ‘grumbling’ cauda equina symptoms in older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis

Christine Comer, Laura Finucane, Chris Mercer, Susan Greenhalgh. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. 12 August 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.msksp.2019.102049

Subgrouping patients with sciatica in primary care for matched care pathways: development of a subgrouping algorithm.

Konstantinou K, Dunn KM, van der Windt D, Ogollah R, Jasani V, Foster NE; SCOPiC study team. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Jul 4;20(1):313. doi: 10.1186/s12891-019-2686-x.

Systematic review of diagnostic accuracy of patient history, clinical findings, and physical tests in the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis.

Cook CJ, Cook CE, Reiman MP, Joshi AB, Richardson W, Garcia AN. Eur Spine J. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.1007/s00586-019-06048-4.

Systematic review of diagnostic accuracy of patient history, clinical findings, and physical tests in the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis.

Cook CJ, Cook CE, Reiman MP, Joshi AB, Richardson W, Garcia AN. Eur Spine J. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.1007/s00586-019-06048-4.

The ambiguity of sciatica as a clinical diagnosis: A case series.

Troutner AM, Battaglia PJ. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2019 Sep 24. doi: 10.1097/JXX.0000000000000288.

The clinical features and outcome of scan-negative and scan-positive cases in suspected cauda equina syndrome: a retrospective study of 276 patients.

Hoeritzauer I, Pronin S, Carson A, Statham P, Demetriades AK, Stone J. J Neurol. 2018 Oct 8. doi: 10.1007/s00415-018-9078-2.

The Diagnostic Accuracy of Gluteal Trigger Points to Differentiate Radicular From Nonradicular Low Back Pain.

Adelmanesh F, Jalali A, Shirvani A, Pakmanesh K, Pourafkari M, Raissi GR, Shir Y. Clin J Pain. 2016 Aug

The Number of Patients and Therapeutic Profile of Spinal Stenosis Using Health Insurance Claims in Japan.

Kuboyama I, Toyokawa S, Tomio J, Inada H, Tanihara S, Kobayashi Y. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 Jul

Understanding sciatica: illness and treatment beliefs in a lumbar radicular pain population. A qualitative interview study

  Robert Goldsmith, Nefyn Howard Williams and Fiona Wood. BJGP Open 6 August 2019; bjgpopen19X101654. DOI:

What is the diagnostic accuracy of red flags related to cauda equina syndrome (CES), when compared to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)? A systematic review.

Dionne Nathalie, Adefolarin Abiodun, Kunzelman Dena, Trehan Nitin, Sadi Jackie. 17 May 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.msksp.2019.05.004

Member login