SMT – Biomechanics

Basic Science Research Related to Chiropractic Spinal Adjusting: The State of the Art and Recommendations Revisited

Biomechanical and neurophysiological responses to spinal manipulation in patients with lumbar radiculopathy.

Changes in biomechanical dysfunction and low back pain reduction with osteopathic manual treatment: results from the OSTEOPATHIC Trial.

Changes in postural activity of the trunk muscles following spinal manipulative therapy

Comparing targeted thrust manipulation with general thrust manipulation in patients with low back pain. A general approach is as effective as a specific one. A randomised controlled trial

Christopher J McCarthy, Louise Potter, Jackie A Oldham. BMJ Sports and Exercise Medicine. 5 October, 2019. DOI: 10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000514

Comparison of human lumbar disc pressure characteristics during simulated spinal manipulation vs. spinal mobilization.

Wang F, Zhang J, Feng W, Liu Q, Yang X, Zhang H, Han L, Min Y, Zhao P. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Oct 25. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9591.

Determining cavitation location during lumbar and thoracic spinal manipulation: is spinal manipulation accurate and specific?

Differential displacement of soft tissue layers from manual therapy loading.

Engell S, Triano JJ, Fox JR, Langevin HM, Konofagou EE. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2016 Feb

Differential patient responses to spinal manipulative therapy and their relation to spinal degeneration and post-treatment changes in disc diffusion.

Wong AYL, Parent EC, Dhillon SS, Prasad N, Samartzis D, Kawchuk GN. Eur Spine J. 2019 Jan 2. doi: 10.1007/s00586-018-5851-2.

Distraction manipulation of the lumbar spine: a review of the literature.

Distribution of Cavitations as Identified with Accelerometry during Lumbar Spinal Manipulation

Do participants with low back pain who respond to spinal manipulative therapy differ biomechanically from nonresponders, untreated controls or asymptomatic controls?

Does inter-vertebral range of motion increase after spinal manipulation? A prospective cohort study

Does inter-vertebral range of motion increase after spinal manipulation? A prospective cohort study

Does manual therapy affect functional and biomechanical outcomes of a sit-to-stand task in a population with low back pain? A preliminary analysis.

Carpino G, Tran S, Currie S, Enebo B, Davidson BS, Howarth SJ. Chiropr Man Therap. 2020 Jan 24;28:5. doi: 10.1186/s12998-019-0290-7.

Does the application site of spinal manipulative therapy alter spinal tissues loading?

Funabashi M, Nougarou F, Descarreaux M, Prasad N, Kawchuk GN. Spine J. 2018 Jan 17. pii: S1529-9430(18)30010-X. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.01.008.

Effect of Sampling Rates on the Quantification of Forces, Durations, and Rates of Loading of Simulated Side Posture High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Lumbar Spine Manipulation

Effect of Seated Thoracic Manipulation on Changes in Scapular Kinematics and Scapulohumeral Rhythm in Young Asymptomatic Participants: A Randomized Study

Effects of Cervical High-Velocity Low-Amplitude Techniques on Range of Motion, Strength Performance, and Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Review.

Galindez-Ibarbengoetxea X, Setuain I, Andersen LL, Ramírez-Velez R, González-Izal M, Jauregi A, Izquierdo M. J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Sep;23(9):667-675. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0002. Epub 2017 Jul 21

Effects of spinal manipulative therapy biomechanical parameters on clinical and biomechanical outcomes of participants with chronic thoracic pain: a randomized controlled experimental trial.

Pagé I, Descarreaux M. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Jan 18;20(1):29. doi: 10.1186/s12891-019-2408-4.

Effects of vertebral axial decompression on intradiscal pressure.

Force transmission between thoracic and cervical segments of the spine during prone-lying high-velocity low-amplitude spinal manipulation: A proof of principle for the concept of regional interdependence

Shawn Engell, John J. Triano, Samuel J. Howarth. Clinical Biomechanics. July 5, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2019.07.006

Global 3D head-trunk kinematics during cervical spine manipulation at different levels.

Klein P, Broers C, Feipel V, Salvia P, Van Geyt B, Dugailly PM, Rooze M. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2003 Nov;18(9):827-31.

High loading rate during spinal manipulation produces unique facet joint capsule strain patterns compared with axial rotations.

High-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation (HVLA) does not alter three-dimensional position of sacroiliac joint in healthy men: A quasi-experimental study

Danielle de Faria Alvim de Toledo, Frederico Barreto Kochem, Julio Guilherme Silva. Journal of Bodywark and Mevement Therapies. June 13, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2019.05.020

Instantaneous rate of loading during manual high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulations.

Intended and non-intended kinematic effects of atlanto-axial rotational high-velocity, low-amplitude techniques

Intervertebral Kinematics of the Cervical Spine Before, During and After High Velocity Low Amplitude Manipulation.

Anderst WJ, Gale T, LeVasseur C, Raj S, Gongaware K, Schneider M. Spine J. 2018 Aug 21. pii: S1529-9430(18)31085-4. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.07.026.

Intervertebral kinematics of the cervical spine before, during, and after high-velocity low-amplitude manipulation.

Anderst WJ, Gale T, LeVasseur C, Raj S, Gongaware K, Schneider M. Spine J. 2018 Aug 22. pii: S1529-9430(18)31085-4. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.07.026.

Loads in the lumbar spine during traction therapy.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Zygapophyseal Joint Space Changes (Gapping) in Low Back Pain Patients Following Spinal Manipulation and Side-Posture Positioning: A Randomized Controlled Mechanisms Trial With Blinding

Manipulation Peak Forces Across Spinal Regions for Children Using Mannequin Simulators.

Triano JJ, Lester S, Starmer D, Hewitt EG. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2017 Mar 5. pii: S0161-4754(16)30249-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.01.001.

Mechanisms and effects of spinal high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust manipulation: Previous theories

Neuromechanical characterization of in vivo lumbar spinal manipulation. Part I. Vertebral motion.

Patient-Induced Reaction Forces and Moments Are Influenced by Variations in Spinal Manipulative Technique.

D’Angelo K, Triano JJ, Kawchuk GN, Howarth SJ. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Jan 15;42(2):E71-E77. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001725.

Potential mechanisms for lumbar spinal stiffness change following spinal manipulative therapy: a scoping review.

Jun P, Pagé I, Vette A, Kawchuk G. Chiropr Man Therap. 2020 Mar 23;28:15. doi: 10.1186/s12998-020-00304-x.

Preliminary investigation of the mechanisms underlying the effects of manipulation: exploration of a multi-variate model including spinal stiffness, multifidus recruitment, and clinical findings

Procedure Selection and Patient Positioning Influence Spine Kinematics During High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Spinal Manipulation Applied to the Low Back

Spencer Bell, Kevin D’Angelo, Gregory N. Kawchuk, John J. Triano, Samuel J. Howarth DOI:10.1016/j.jmpt.2016.10.014 JMPT February 10, 2017

Quantification of Cavitation and Gapping of Lumbar Zygapophyseal Joints during Spinal Manipulative Therapy

Relationship between Biomechanical Characteristics of Spinal Manipulation and Neural Responses in an Animal Model: Effect of Linear Control of Thrust Displacement versus Force, Thrust Amplitude, Thrust Duration, and Thrust Rate

Review of methods used by chiropractors to determine the site for applying manipulation

Short-term increase in discs’ apparent diffusion is associated with pain and mobility improvements after spinal mobilization for low back pain.

Thiry P, Reumont F, Brismée JM, Dierick F. Sci Rep. 2018 May 29;8(1):8281. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-26697-7.

Spinal manipulation force and duration affect vertebral movement and neuromuscular responses.

Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application.

Funabashi M, Nougarou F, Descarreaux M, Prasad N, Kawchuk GN. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 May 1;42(9):635-643. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002096.

Study protocol for patient response to spinal manipulation – a prospective observational clinical trial on physiological and patient-centered outcomes in patients with chronic low back pain

The biomechanics of spinal manipulation.

The effect of application site of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on spinal stiffness.

The Effect of Duration and Amplitude of Spinal Manipulative Therapy (SMT) on Spinal Stiffness

The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on spinal range of motion: a systematic literature review

The effective forces transmitted by high-speed, low-amplitude thoracic manipulation.

The effects of spinal manipulation on performance-related outcomes in healthy asymptomatic adult population: a systematic review of best evidence.

Corso M, Mior SA, Batley S, Tuff T, da Silva-Oolup S, Howitt S, Srbely J. Chiropr Man Therap. 2019 Jun 7;27:25. doi: 10.1186/s12998-019-0246-y.

The Role of Preload Forces in Spinal Manipulation: Experimental Investigation of Kinematic and Electromyographic Responses in Healthy Adults

Three-dimensional chiropractor-patient contact loads during side posture lumbar spinal manipulation: a pilot study

Thrust Magnitudes, Rates, and 3-Dimensional Directions Delivered in Simulated Lumbar Spine High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Manipulation

Edward F. Owens Jr., Ronald S. Hosek, Linda Mullin, Lydia Dever, Stephanie G.B. Sullivan, Brent S. Russell. JMPT. June 21, 2017 DOI:10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.05.002

Tissue loading created during spinal manipulation in comparison to loading created by passive spinal movements.

Funabashi M, Kawchuk GN, Vette AH, Goldsmith P, Prasad N. Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 1;6:38107. doi: 10.1038/srep38107.

Vertebral Displacements and Muscle Activity During Manual Therapy: Distinct Behaviors Between Spinal Manipulation and Mobilization

Isabelle Pagé, Éric Biner, Martin Descarreaux. JMPT. November–December 2018, Pages 753-761. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2018.07.004

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