Xray & Imaging

“Ostrich sign” indicates bilateral vertebral artery dissection.


A national intervention to reduce imaging for low back pain by general practitioners: a retrospective economic program evaluation using Medicare Benefits Schedule data.

Morgan T, Wu J, Ovchinikova L, Lindner R, Blogg S, Moorin R. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 Dec 21;19(1):983. doi: 10.1186/s12913-019-4773-y.

Abnormal findings on magnetic resonance images of the cervical spines in 1211 asymptomatic subjects.


Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting lumbo-sacral nerve root compromise: a systematic literature review.

Tawa N, Rhoda A, Diener I. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016 Sep 6;17(1):386. doi: 10.1186/s12891-016-1236-z.

Altered Cortical Activation in Adolescents With Acute Migraine: A Magnetoencephalography Study


An analysis of radiographic parameters comparison between lumbar spine latericumbent and full-length lateral standing radiographs.

Yang Z, Xie F, Zhang J, Liang Z, Wang Z, Hu X, Luo Z. Spine J. 2017 Jul 7. pii: S1529-9430(17)30247-4. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2017.06.004.

Are Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologies Crucial to Our Understanding of Spinal Conditions?

Crawford RJ, Fortin M, Weber KA 2nd, Smith A, Elliott JM. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2019 Mar 26:1-32. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2019.8793.

Association between radiculopathy and lumbar multifidus atrophy in magnetic resonance imaging.


Association of early imaging for back pain with clinical outcomes in older adults.


Association of Exposure to Diagnostic Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation With Risk of Cancer Among Youths in South Korea.

Hong JY, Han K, Jung JH, Kim JS. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Sep 4;2(9):e1910584. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10584.

Automatic Cobb angle determination from radiographic images.


Axial loading during MRI influences T2-mapping values of lumbar discs: a feasibility study on patients with low back pain.

Nilsson M, Lagerstrand K, Kasperska I, Brisby H, Hebelka H. Eur Spine J. 2016 Jun

Barriers and facilitators for guideline adherence in diagnostic imaging: an explorative study of GPs’ and radiologists’ perspectives.

Gransjøen AM, Wiig S, Lysdahl KB, Hofmann BM. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 Jul 16;18(1):556. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3372-7.

Butterfly Vertebrae: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Analysis

Yoshihiro Katsuura, MD, Han Jo Kim, MD. Global Spine Journal. doi: 10.1177/2192568218801016 September 18, 2018

Changes in pain knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of osteopathy students after completing a clinically focused pain education module


Characterization of symptomatic lumbar foraminal stenosis by conventional imaging.


Classification of intervertebral disk degeneration with axial T2 mapping.


Clinical Prevalence and Population Incidence of Serious Pathologies Amongst Patients Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Low Back Pain.

Street KJ, White DSG, Vandal AC. Spine J. 2019 Sep 10. pii: S1529-9430(19)30966-0. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2019.09.002.

Comparison between pain at discography and morphological disc changes at axial loaded MRI in patients with low back pain.


Comparison of 3 physical therapy modalities for acute pain in lumbar disc herniation measured by clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging.


Comparison of Modic Changes in the Lumbar and Cervical Spine, in 3167 Patients with and without Spinal Pain


Consecutive assessment of FA and ADC values of normal lumbar nerve roots from the junction of the dura mater


Correlation of lateral stenosis in MRI with symptoms, walking capacity and EMG findings in patients with surgically confirmed lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis


Curbing Unnecessary and Wasted Diagnostic Imaging.

Oren O, Kebebew E, Ioannidis JPA. JAMA. 2019 Jan 7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.20295.

Current concept in upright spinal MRI.

Botchu R, Bharath A, Davies AM, Butt S, James SL. Eur Spine J. 2018 May;27(5):987-993. doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-5304-3. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Degenerative findings on MRI of the cervical spine: an inter- and intra-rater reliability study

Line Thorndal Moll, Morten Wasmod Kindt, Christina Malmose Stapelfeldt and Tue Secher Jensen. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2018 26:43. 16 October 2018.  Doi: 10.1186/s12998-018-0210-2

Diagnosing Femoroacetabular Impingement From Plain Radiographs: Do Radiologists and Orthopaedic Surgeons Differ?


Diagnostic Accuracy of Lumbosacral Spine Magnetic Resonance Image Reading by Chiropractors, Chiropractic Radiologists, and Medical Radiologists.


Diagnostic Benefits of Axial-Loaded Magnetic Resonance Imaging Over Recumbent Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Obese Lower Back Pain Patients.

Lorenc T, Palczewski P, Wójcik D, Glinkowski W, Gołębiowski M. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2018 Aug;43(16):1146-1153. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002532.

Diagnostic capability of low- versus high-field magnetic resonance imaging for lumbar degenerative disease.


Do lumbar magnetic resonance imaging changes predict neuropathic pain in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain?

Vagaska E, Litavcova A, Srotova I, Vlckova E, Kerkovsky M, Jarkovsky J, Bednarik J, Adamova B. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Apr;98(17):e15377. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015377.

Do MRI findings identify patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes who respond best to rest or exercise: a subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial


Do MRI findings identify patients with low back pain or sciatica who respond better to particular interventions? A systematic review.


Do Muscle Characteristics on Lumbar Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Computed Tomography Predict Future Low Back Pain, Physical Function, or Performance? A Systematic Review


Does magnetic resonance imaging predict future low back pain? A systematic review.


Does rewording MRI reports improve patient understanding and emotional response to a clinical report?

Bossen JK, Hageman MG, King JD, Ring DC. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013 Nov;471(11):3637-44. doi: 10.1007/s11999-013-3100-x.

Dynamic changes in the dural sac cross-sectional area on axial loaded MR imaging: is there a difference between degenerative spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis?


Effect of disc degeneration on lumbar segmental mobility analyzed by kinetic magnetic resonance imaging.


Essential key messages about diagnosis, imaging, and self-care for people with low back pain: a modified Delphi study of consumer and expert opinions.

French SD, Nielsen M, Hall L, Nicolson PJ, van Tulder M, Bennell KL, Hinman RS, Maher CG, Jull G, Hodges PW. Pain. 2019 Jul 23. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001663.

Evaluating Two Measures of Lumbar Spine MRI Overuse: Administrative Data Versus Chart Review.

Avoundjian T, Gidwani R, Yao D, Lo J, Sinnott P, Thakur N, Barnett PG. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Jun 22

Evaluation of the Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electrodiagnostic Findings in Chronic Low Backache Patients.

Singh R, Yadav SK, Sood S, Yadav RK, Rohilla R. Asian J Neurosurg. 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1078-1083. doi: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_169_17.

Evaluation of the impact of a brief educational message on clinicians’ awareness of risks of ionising-radiation exposure in imaging investigations: a pilot pre-post intervention study

  BMC Health Services Research 2019 19:841. 14 November 2019. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4712-y

Factors affecting disability and physical function in degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis of L4-5: evaluation with axially loaded MRI.


Functional MRI of the lumbar spine in erect position in a superconducting open-configuration MR system: preliminary results.


How common is imaging for low back pain in primary and emergency care? Systematic review and meta-analysis of over 4 million imaging requests across 21 years

  Aron Downie, Mark Hancock, Hazel Jenkins, Rachelle Buchbinder, Ian Harris, Martin Underwood, Stacy Goergen, Chris G Maher. BJSM. 13 Mar 2019. Doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100087

Imaging use for low back pain by Ontario primary care clinicians: protocol for a mixed methods study – the Back ON study.

French SD, Green ME, Bhatia RS, Peng Y, Hayden JA, Hartvigsen J, Ivers NM, Grimshaw JM, Booth CM, Rühland L, Norman KE. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Feb 2;20(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s12891-019-2427-1.

Intersession reliability of fMRI activation for heat pain and motor tasks


Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated With Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

Hancock MJ, Kjaer P, Kent P, Jensen RK, Jensen TS. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Sep 1;42(17):1283-1288. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002102.

Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated with Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

Hancock MJ, Kjaer P, Kent P, Jensen RK, Jensen TS. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Feb 6. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002102.

Longitudinal associations between incident lumbar spine MRI findings and chronic low back pain or radicular symptoms: retrospective analysis of data from the longitudinal assessment of imaging and disability of the back (LAIDBACK)


Lumbosacral Spinal Imaging for Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Nontraumatic Low Back Pain.

Berezin L, Thompson C, Rojas-Luengas V, Borgundvaag B, McLeod SL. J Emerg Med. 2020 Jan 27. pii: S0736-4679(19)31119-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.12.017.

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra in a population-based study of 5860 individuals: Prevalence and relationship to low back pain


Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine with axial loading: a review of 120 cases.


Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine: determining clinical impact and potential harm from overuse.

Wnuk NM, Alkasab TK, Rosenthal DI. Spine J. 2018 Apr 18. pii: S1529-9430(18)30159-1. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.04.005.

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can identify painful lumbar discs and may facilitate improved clinical outcomes of lumbar surgeries for discogenic pain.

Gornet MG, Peacock J, Claude J, Schranck FW, Copay AG, Eastlack RK, Benz R, Olshen A, Lotz JC. Eur Spine J. 2019 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s00586-018-05873-3.

Manually defining regions of interest when quantifying paravertebral muscles fatty infiltration from axial magnetic resonance imaging: a proposed method for the lumbar spine with anatomical cross-reference

  Rebecca J. Crawford, Jon Cornwall, Rebecca Abbott and James M. Elliott BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2017 18:25 19 January 2017

Missed lumbar disc herniations diagnosed with kinetic magnetic resonance imaging.


Modic Changes are not Associated with Long-Term Pain and Disability – A Cohort Study With 13-Year Follow-up.

Udby PM, Bendix T, Ohrt-Nissen S, Lassen MR, Sørensen JS, Brorson S, Carreon LY, Andersen MØ. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2019 Mar 26. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000003051.

Modic changes of the lumbar spine: prevalence, risk factors, and association with disc degeneration and low back pain in a large-scale population-based cohort.


MRI Findings of Disc Degeneration are More Prevalent in Adults with Low Back Pain than in Asymptomatic Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.


MRI zygapophyseal joint space changes (gapping) in low back pain patients following spinla manipulation and side posture positioning: A randomized controlled mechanisms trial with blinding


Multilevel non-contiguous spinal injuries: incidence and patterns based on whole spine MRI.

Kanna RM, Gaike CV, Mahesh A, Shetty AP, Rajasekaran S. Eur Spine J. 2016 Apr

Omitting Routine Radiography of Traumatic Distal Radial Fractures After Initial 2-Week Follow-up Does Not Affect Outcomes.

van Gerven P, El Moumni M, Zuidema WP, Rubinstein SM, Krijnen P, van Tulder MW, Schipper IB, Termaat MF. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2019 Aug 7;101(15):1342-1350. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.18.01160.

One-year-survey with multicenter data of more than 4,500 patients with degenerative rheumatic diseases treated with therapeutic nuclear magnetic resonance.


Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine in 3161 patients: a CT-based study.


Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine in 3161 patients: a CT-based study.


Outcomes from magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed symptomatic cervical disk herniation patients treated with high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulative therapy: a prospective cohort study with 3-month follow-up.


Overuse, Overdose, Overdiagnosis… Overreaction?


Patient knowledge regarding radiation exposure from spinal imaging.

Bohl DD, Hijji FY, Massel DH, Mayo BC, Long WW, Modi KD, Narain AS, Manning BT, Ahn J, Louie PK, Singh K. Spine J. 2017 Mar;17(3):305-312. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2016.09.017.

Prevalence of MRI findings in the cervical spine in patients with persistent neck pain based on quantification of narrative MRI reports

  Rikke Krüger Jensen, Tue Secher Jensen, Søren Grøn, Erik Frafjord, Uffe Bundgaard, Anders Lynge Damsgaard, Jeppe Mølgaard Mathiasen and Per Kjaer. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2019 27:13. 6 March 2019. DOI: 10.1186/s12998-019-0233-3

Quantitative estimation of the high-intensity zone in the lumbar spine: comparison between the symptomatic and asymptomatic population.


Radiographic parameters of segmental instability in lumbar spine using kinetic MRI.


Reliability and reproducibility analysis of the Cobb angle and assessing sagittal plane by computer-assisted and manual measurement tools


Segmental mobility of the lumbar spine during a posterior to anterior mobilization: assessment using dynamic MRI.


Sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of mobile and nonmobile L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis


Spinal cord-midbrain functional connectivity is related to perceived pain intensity: a combined spino-cortical FMRI study.


Spinal pain.


Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations


The assessment of neuronal status in normal and cervical spondylotic myelopathy using diffusion tensor imaging.


The association of high-intensity zones on MRI and low back pain: a systematic review

  Masatoshi Teraguchi, Rita Yim, Jason Pui-Yin Cheung and Dino Samartzis. Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders 2018 13:22. 20 October 2018. Doi: 10.1186/s13013-018-0168-9

The Cascade of Medical Services and Associated Longitudinal Costs Due to Nonadherent Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Low Back Pain


The clinical features and outcome of scan-negative and scan-positive cases in suspected cauda equina syndrome: a retrospective study of 276 patients.

Hoeritzauer I, Pronin S, Carson A, Statham P, Demetriades AK, Stone J. J Neurol. 2018 Oct 8. doi: 10.1007/s00415-018-9078-2.

The correlation of radiographic findings and patient symptomatology in cervical degenerative joint disease: a cross-sectional study


The effect of lumbar flexion and extension on disc contour abnormality measured quantitatively on magnetic resonance imaging.


The evolution of degenerative marrow (Modic) changes in the cervical spine in neck pain patients


The extremes of spinal motion: a kinematic study of a contortionist in an open-configuration magnetic resonance scanner: case report.


The impact of choosing words carefully: an online investigation into imaging reporting strategies and best practice care for low back pain

Emma L. Karran, Yasmin Medalian, Susan L. Hillier, G. Lorimer Moseley. PeerJ. 7 Dec 2017. DOI:10.7717/peerj.4151

The impact of routine whole spine MRI screening in the evaluation of spinal degenerative diseases.

Kanna RM, Kamal Y, Mahesh A, Venugopal P, Shetty AP, Rajasekaran S. Eur Spine J. 2017 Jan 21. doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-4944-7.

Understanding patient beliefs regarding the use of imaging in the management of low back pain


Using behaviour change theory and preliminary testing to develop an implementation intervention to reduce imaging for low back pain.

Jenkins HJ, Moloney NA, French SD, Maher CG, Dear BF, Magnussen JS, Hancock MJ. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 Sep 24;18(1):734. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3526-7.

Variability in diagnostic error rates of ten MRI centers performing lumbar spine MRI exams on the same patient within a three week period.

Herzog R, Elgort DR, Flanders AE, Moley PJ. Spine J. 2016 Nov 17. pii: S1529-9430(16)31093-2. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2016.11.009.

Vertebral Endplate (Modic) Change is an Independent Risk Factor for Episodes of Severe and Disabling Low Back Pain.


What Proportion of Incident Radiographic Vertebral Fractures in Older Men Is Clinically Diagnosed and Vice Versa: A Prospective Study.

Ensrud KE, Blackwell TL, Fink HA, Zhang J, Cauley JA, et al; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Research Group. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Aug;31(8):1500-3. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2831.

Where do patients with MRI-confirmed single-level radiculopathy experience pain, and what is the clinical interpretability of these pain patterns? A cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study

  Hanne B. Albert, Jeanette Kaae Hansen, Helle Søgaard and Peter Kent. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 2019 27:50. 7 October 2019. DOI: 10.1186/s12998-019-0273-8

Worsening Trends in the Management and Treatment of Back Pain


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