Outcome Measures

The Shirley Ryan Ability Lab in Chicago has an excellent Database of 400+ outcome measures and is available to practitioners for personal use only! https://www.sralab.org/ (Home page). Their “Instrument” page has a complete list of outcome measures and appropriate links here: https://www.sralab.org/rehabilitation-measures  Rehab Measures Educational Video’s for practitioners. https://www.sralab.org/rehabmeasures-educational-resources  A valuable resource for every chiropractor in clinical practice!


Comparison of a Pain Tolerability Question With the Numeric Rating Scale for Assessment of Self-reported Chronic Pain. Markman JD, Gewandter JS, Frazer ME. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Apr 1;3(4):e203155. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3155. Using patient-reported measures to drive change in healthcare: the experience of the digital, continuous and systematic PREMs observatory in Italy. De Rosis S, Cerasuolo D, Nuti S. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Apr 16;20(1):315. doi: 10.1186/s12913-020-05099-4. Outcome measures for assessing the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions in frequent episodic or chronic migraine: a Delphi study. Luedtke K, Basener A, Bedei S, Castien R, Chaibi A, Falla D, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Gustafsson M, Hall T, Jull G, Kropp P, Madsen BK, Schaefer B, Seng E, Steen C, Tuchin P, von Piekartz H, Wollesen B. BMJ Open. 2020 Feb 12;10(2):e029855. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029855. Pain scales as placebos: Can pain scales change reported pain across measurements? Joshua M. Ackerman, Jenna Goesling, Aradhna Krishna. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. May 2020. Article 103961. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2020.103961 Validation of the recently developed Total Disability Index: a single measure of disability in neck and back pain patients. Cruz DL, Ayres EW, Spiegel MA, Day LM, Hart RA, Ames CP, Burton DC, Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, Schwab FJ, Errico TJ, Bess S, Lafage V, Protopsaltis TS. J Neurosurg Spine. 2019 Dec 6:1-9. doi: 10.3171/2019.9.SPINE19331. Oswestry Disability Index scores correlate with MRI measurements in degenerating intervertebral discs and endplates. Arpinar VE, Gliedt JA, King JA, Maiman DJ, Muftuler LT. Eur J Pain. 2019 Oct 8. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1490. Psychometric evaluation of the Optimal Screening for Prediction of Referral and Outcome Yellow Flag (OSPRO-YF) tool: factor structure, reliability, and validity. Butera KA, George SZ, Lentz TA. J Pain. 2019 Sep 18. pii: S1526-5900(19)30811-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2019.09.003. A Responsiveness Analysis of the STarT Back Screening Tool in Patients With Non-Specific Low Back Pain. Medeiros FC, Costa LOP, Oliveira IS, Costa LDCM. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2019 Aug 23:1-34. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2019.8776. “Keep it simple”: Perspectives of patients with low back pain on how to qualify a patient-centred consultation using patient-reported outcomes. Ibsen C, Schiøttz-Christensen B, Maribo T, Nielsen CV, Hørder M, Handberg C. Musculoskeletal Care. 2019 Aug 20. doi: 10.1002/msc.1417. The Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ): Does it really measure fear beliefs? Aasdahl, Lene; Marchand, Gunn Hege; Gismervik, Sigmund Østgård; Myhre, Kjersti; Fimland, Marius Steiro; Røe, Cecilie. Spine. August 12, 2019. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000003188 PROMs data: can it be used to make decisions for individual patients? A narrative review  Field J, Holmes MM, Newell D. Patient Related Outcome Measures 2019, 10:233-241. 29 July 2019. DOI: 10.2147/PROM.S156291 Pediatric PROMIS is Equivalent to SRS-22 in Assessing Health Status in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Fedorak, Graham T.; Larkin, Kevin; Heflin, John A.; Xu, Julie; Hung, Man. Spine. June 12, 2019. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000003112 Comparison of the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) with two single-item measures among Finnish Health care centre patients. Tolvanen E, Koskela TH, Kosunen E. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 Jun 13;19(1):376. doi: 10.1186/s12913-019-4182-2. A web-based, branching logic questionnaire for the automated classification of migraine. Kaiser EA, Igdalova A, Aguirre GK, Cucchiara B. Cephalalgia. 2019 May 1:333102419847749. doi: 10.1177/0333102419847749. Development of a standard set of outcome measures for non-specific low back pain in Dutch primary care physiotherapy practices: a Delphi study. Verburg AC, van Dulmen SA, Kiers H, Nijhuis-van der Sanden MWG, van der Wees PJ. Eur Spine J. 2019 Apr 19. doi: 10.1007/s00586-019-05962-x. The diagnostic accuracy of headache measurement instruments: A systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on headaches associated with musculoskeletal symptoms. van der Meer HA, Visscher CM, Vredeveld T, Nijhuis van der Sanden MW, Hh Engelbert R, Speksnijder CM. Cephalalgia. 2019 Apr 18:333102419840777. doi: 10.1177/0333102419840777. Feasibility, Validity, and Responsiveness of Self-Report and Objective Measures of Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Pain. Stevens ML, Lin CC, van der Ploeg HP, De Sousa M, Castle J, Nicholas MK, Maher CG. PM R. 2019 Jan 4. doi: 10.1002/pmrj.12058. Reliability and validity of self-reported questionnaires to measure pain and disability in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders: part 3-a systematic review from the CADRE Collaboration. Lemeunier N, da Silva-Oolup S, Olesen K, Shearer H, Carroll LJ, Brady O, Côté E, Stern P, Tuff T, Suri-Chilana M, Torres P, Wong JJ, Sutton D, Murnaghan K, Côté P. Eur Spine J. 2019 Mar 16. doi: 10.1007/s00586-019-05949-8. Assessing discrepancies in outcomes of pain rehabilitation: “these questionnaires don’t measure results that are relevant to me”. Borghuis EMC, Reneman MF, Schiphorst Preuper HR. Disabil Rehabil. 2019 Feb 19:1-7. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2018.1561956. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System instruments: outperforming traditional quality of life measures in patients with back and neck pain. Tishelman JC, Vasquez-Montes D, Jevotovsky DS, Stekas N, Moses MJ, Karia RJ, Errico T, Buckland AJ, Protopsaltis TS. J Neurosurg Spine. 2019 Feb 1:1-6. doi: 10.3171/2018.10.SPINE18571. STarT Back Tool risk stratification is associated with changes in movement profile and sensory discrimination in low back pain: A study of 290 patients. Rabey M, Kendell M, Godden C, Liburd J, Netley H, O’Shaughnessy C, O’Sullivan P, Smith A, Beales D. Eur J Pain. 2018 Dec 24. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1351. Recommendations for selection of self-report pain intensity measures in children and adolescents: a systematic review and quality assessment of measurement properties. Birnie KA, Hundert AS, Lalloo C, Nguyen C, Stinson JN. Pain. 2019 Jan;160(1):5-18. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001377. Measuring biopsychosocial risk for back pain disability in chiropractic patients using the STarT back screening tool: a cross-sectional survey. Khan Y, Lawrence D, Vining R, Derby D. Chiropr Man Therap. 2019 Jan 15;27:2. doi: 10.1186/s12998-018-0228-5. Physical activity and disability measures in chronic non-specific low back pain: a study of responsiveness. Morelhão PK, Franco MR, Oliveira CB, Hisamatsu TM, Ferreira PH, Costa LO, Maher CG, Pinto RZ. Clin Rehabil. 2018 Jul 1:269215518787015. doi: 10.1177/0269215518787015. Core Outcome Measures for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Research: Recommendations from a Veterans Health Administration Work Group. Kroenke K, Krebs EE, Turk D, Von Korff M, Bair MJ, Allen KD, Sandbrink F, Cheville AL, DeBar L, Lorenz KA, Kerns RD. Pain Med. 2019 Jan 5. doi: 10.1093/pm/pny279. painPREDICT: first interim data from the development of a new patient-reported pain questionnaire to predict treatment response using sensory symptom profiles. Tölle TR, Baron R, de Bock E, Junor R, Dias Barbosa C, Marshall SF, Arnould B, Freynhagen R. Curr Med Res Opin. 2018 Dec 21:1. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2018.1562687. STarT Back Tool risk stratification is associated with changes in movement profile and sensory discrimination in low back pain: A study of 290 patients. Rabey M, Kendall M, Godden C, Liburd J, Netley H, O’Shaughnessy C, O’Sullivan P, Smith A, Beales D. Eur J Pain. 2018 Dec 24. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1351. How is patient involvement measured in patient centeredness scales for health professionals? A systematic review of their measurement properties and content. Ree E, Wiig S, Manser T, Storm M. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 Jan 8;19(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3798-y. Feasibility, validity and responsiveness of self-report and objective measures of physical activity in patients with chronic pain. Stevens ML, Lin CC, van der Ploeg HP, De Sousa M, Castle J, Nicholas MK, Maher CG. PM R. 2019 Jan 4. doi: 10.1002/pmrj.12058. Chiropractors’ views on the use of patient-reported outcome measures in clinical practice: a qualitative study  Michelle M. Holmes, Felicity L. Bishop, David Newell, Jonathan Field and George Lewith. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 201826:50. 18 December 2018. Doi: 10.1186/s12998-018-0219-6 Comparative Responsiveness of the PROMIS Pain Interference Short Forms with Legacy Pain Measures: Results from Three Randomized Clinical Trials. Chen CX, Kroenke K, Stump T, Kean J, Krebs EE, Bair MJ, Damush T, Monahan PO. J Pain. 2018 Dec 5. pii: S1526-5900(18)30931-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.11.010. Questionnaires that measure the quality of relationships between patients and primary care providers: a systematic review. Ball LE, Barnes KA, Crossland L, Nicholson C, Jackson C. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 Nov 19;18(1):866. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3687-4. Was that painful or non-painful? The Sensation and Pain Rating Scale (SPARS) performs well in the experimental context. Madden VJ, Kamerman P, Bellan V, Catley MJ, Russek LN, Camfferman D, Moseley GL. J Pain. 2018 Nov 1. pii: S1526-5900(18)30765-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.10.006. The effectiveness of training physical therapists in pain neuroscience education on patient reported outcomes for patients with chronic spinal pain: a study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. Lane E, Fritz JM, Greene T, Maddox D. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 Oct 25;19(1):386. doi: 10.1186/s12891-018-2269-2. Utilization of Low Back Pain Patient Reported Outcome Measures Within Chiropractic Literature: A Descriptive Review. Clohesy NC, Schneiders AG, Eaton S. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2018 Oct 24. pii: S0161-4754(17)30053-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.11.007. Evaluating Patient’s Understanding of Pain Neurophysiology: Rasch Analysis of the Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire. Vaughan B, Mulcahy J, Fitzgerald K, Austin P. Clin J Pain. 2018 Sep 26. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000658. The use of STarT back screening tool to predict functional disability outcomes in patients receiving physical therapy for low back pain. Katzan IL, Thompson NR, George SZ, Passek S, Frost F, Stilphen M. Spine J. 2018 Oct 8. pii: S1529-9430(18)31158-6. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.10.002. A preliminary investigation examining patient reported outcome measures for low back pain and utilisation amongst chiropractors in Australia: facilitators and barriers to clinical implementation  Natalie Clohesy and Anthony Schneiders. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies201826:38. 9 October 2018. doi: 10.1186/s12998-018-0208-9 Validation of a Limitations in Daily Activities Scale (LIDAS) for Chronic Pain. Wilson KG, Castillo D, Kowal J, Yong AG, McWilliams LA. J Pain. 2018 Aug 30. pii: S1526-5900(18)30497-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.08.004. Feasibility of the consultation-based reassurance questionnaire in Danish chiropractic practice  Alice Kongsted, Magnus Rudbæk Christensen, Karl Kristian Ingersen and Tue Secher Jensen. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies201826:27. 30 August 2018. Doi: 10.1186/s12998-018-0197-8 Measurement properties of Visual Analogue Scale, Numeric Rating Scale and Pain Severity subscale of the Brief Pain Inventory in patients with low back pain: a systematic review. Chiarotto A, Maxwell LJ, Ostelo RW, Boers M, Tugwell P, Terwee CB. J Pain. 2018 Aug 9. pii: S1526-5900(18)30400-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.07.009. PROMs data: can it be used to make decisions for individual patients? A narrative review  Field J, Holmes MM, Newell D. Patient Related Outcome Measures 2019, 10:233-241. 29 July 2019. DOI: 10.2147/PROM.S156291 Predictive Validity of the STarT Back Tool for Risk of Persistent Disabling Back Pain in a U.S. Primary Care Setting. Suri P, Delaney K, Rundell SD, Cherkin DC. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Aug;99(8):1533-1539.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.02.016. Development and validation of a self-administered neck mobility assessment tool (S-ROM-Neck) in chronic neck pain patients. Langenfeld A, Bastiaenen C, Sieben J, Swanenburg J. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2018 Oct;37:75-79. doi: 10.1016/j.msksp.2018.04.004. Randomized Trial of a Low Literacy Chronic Pain Self-Management Program: Analysis of Secondary Pain and Psychological Outcome Measures Barbara J. Turner, Yuanyuan Liang, Natalia Rodriguez, Raudel Bobadilla, Maureen J. Simmonds, Zenong Yin. The Journal of Pain. July 15, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2018.06.010 Patients First: Toward a Patient-Centered Instrument to Measure Impact of Chronic Pain. Reneman MF, Brandsema KPD, Schrier E, Dijkstra PU, Krabbe PFM. Phys Ther. 2018 Jul 1;98(7):616-625. doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzy040. An Overview of Systematic Reviews on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Used on Neck Disorders. Bobos P, MacDermid JC, Walton DM, Gross A, Santaguida PL. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2018 Jun 22:1-76. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2018.8131. Clinimetric Testing of the Lumbar Spine Instability Questionnaire. Saragiotto BT, Maher CG, New CH, Catley M, Hancock MJ, Cook C, Hodges PW. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2018 Jun 22:1-24. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2018.7866. Sensitivity and Specificity of Patient-Entered Red Flags for Lower Back Pain. Tsiang JT, Kinzy TG, Thompson N, Tanenbaum JE, Thakore NL, Khalaf T, Katzan IL. Spine J. 2018 Jun 26. pii: S1529-9430(18)30621-1. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2018.06.342. Automating Collection of Pain-Related Patient-Reported Outcomes to Enhance Clinical Care and Research. Owen-Smith A, Mayhew M, Leo MC, Varga A, Benes L, Bonifay A, DeBar L. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 Apr 9. doi: 10.1007/s11606-018-4326-9. Focused Evidence Review: Psychometric Properties of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain. Goldsmith ES, Taylor BC, Greer N, Murdoch M, MacDonald R, McKenzie L, Rosebush CE, Wilt TJ. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 Apr 9. doi: 10.1007/s11606-018-4327-8. Predictive Validity of the STarT Back Tool for Risk of Persistent Disabling Back Pain in a United States Primary Care Setting. Suri P, Delaney K, Rundell SD, Cherkin DC. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Apr 3. pii: S0003-9993(18)30204-1. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2018.02.016. Responsiveness and minimal important change of the NeckPix© in subjects with chronic neck pain undergoing rehabilitation. Monticone M, Frigau L, Vernon H, Rocca B, Mola F. Eur Spine J. 2018 Jun;27(6):1324-1331. doi: 10.1007/s00586-017-5343-9. The Spine painDETECT questionnaire: Development and validation of a screening tool for neuropathic pain caused by spinal disorders. Nikaido T, Sumitani M, Sekiguchi M, Konno S. PLoS One. 2018 Mar 21;13(3):e0193987. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193987. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the reliability and validity of sensorimotor measurement instruments in people with chronic low back pain. Ehrenbrusthoff K, Ryan CG, Grüneberg C, Martin DJ. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2018 Mar 2;35:73-83. doi: 10.1016/j.msksp.2018.02.007. Longitudinal Treatment Outcomes for an Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Program: Comparisons of Subjective and Objective Outcomes Based on Opioid Use Status Wesley P. Gilliam, Julia R. Craner, Julie L. Cunningham, Michele M. Evans, Connie A. Luedtke, Eleshia J. Morrison, Jeannie A. Sperry, Larissa L. Loukianova. The Journal of Pain. February 26, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2018.02.010 Validation of a core patient-reported-outcome measure set for operationalizing success in multimodal pain therapy: useful for depicting long-term success? Donath C, Geiß C, Schön C. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 Feb 17;18(1):117. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-2911-6. The validity of pain intensity measures: what do the NRS, VAS, VRS, and FPS-R measure? Thong, Ivan S. K. Jensen, Mark P. Miró, Jordi. Tan, Gabriel. Scandinavian Journal of pain. 2018-02-14.  DOI: 10.1515/sjpain-2018-0012 Validation of the French-Canadian Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire Marie-Pier Girard, Julie O’Shaughnessy, Chantal Doucet, Emeline Lardon, Britt Stuge, Stephanie-May Ruchat, Martin Descarreaux. JMPT. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2018.01.001 Correlation between the pain numeric rating scale and the 12-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 in patients with musculoskeletal pain. Saltychev M, Bärlund E, Laimi K. Int J Rehabil Res. 2017 Oct 18. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0000000000000262. A Comparison of Back Pain Functional Scale with Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index and Short Form 36-Health Survey. Koç M, Bayar B, Bayar K. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Oct 3. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000002431. Spinal Cord Injury Pain Instrument and painDETECT questionnaire: Convergent construct validity in individuals with Spinal Cord Injury. Franz S, Schuld C, Wilder-Smith EP, Heutehaus L, Lang S, Gantz S, Schuh-Hofer S, Treede RD, Bryce TN, Wang H, Weidner N. Eur J Pain. 2017 Jun 27. doi: 10.1002/ejp.1069. Assessing physical functioning on pain management programmes: the unique contribution of directly assessed physical performance measures and their relationship to self-reports. Guildford BJ, Jacobs CM, Daly-Eichenhardt A, Scott W, McCracken LM. Br J Pain. 2017 Feb;11(1):46-57. doi: 10.1177/2049463716680559. The STarT back tool in chiropractic practice: a narrative review  Yasmeen Khan Chiropractic & Manual Therapies 21 April 2017 DOI: 10.1186/s12998-017-0142-2 Psychometric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index. Saltychev M, Mattie R, McCormick Z, Bärlund E, Laimi K. Int J Rehabil Res. 2017 Mar 31. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0000000000000226. OswestryDisabilityIndex: a psychometricanalysis with 1,610patients. Brodke DS, Goz V, Lawrence BD, Spiker WR, Neese A, Hung M. Spine J. 2017 Mar;17(3):321-327. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2016.09.020. The impact of patient-reported outcome measures in clinical practice for pain: a systematic review. Holmes MM, Lewith G, Newell D, Field J, Bishop FL. Qual Life Res. 2016 Nov 4. PMID: 27815820 The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire: one or more dimensions? Yamato TP, Maher CG, Saragiotto BT, Catley MJ, McAuley JH. Eur Spine J. 2016 Nov 24. Relevance of Quality Measurement to Integrative Healthcare in the United States. Whedon JM, Punzo M, Dehen R, Menard MB, Fogel D, Olejownik J. J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Nov;22(11):853-858.


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