Workplace & Chiropractic


American Chiropractic Association, The Association of Chiropractic Colleges, Congress of Chiropractic State Associations, International Chiropractors Association. The Path to Change in the US Healthcare System: Chiropractic Cost-Effectiveness Supplement. 2009 [cited 2012 May 16]; 1-29. Available from:

ACA. Synopsis of Background & Cost Effectiveness Research. American Chiropractic Association. 2008 [cited 2012 May 16]; 1-7. Available from:

Anon. Unions and management: Chiropractic’s role in the workplace. 1990 Jan [cited 2012 June 6]; 27(1):21–21. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Anon. WHO to Publish Text on Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiro. 1992 NOV 6 [cited 2012 June 10]; 10(23). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Anon. Dr. Mikhail Mikheev’s Address to the World Chiropractic Congress. Dynamic Chiro. 1993 JUL 16 [cited 2012 June 10]; 11(15). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6.

Anon. Getting Worker’s Back on the Job. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association. 2000 MAY [cited 2012 June 3]; 37(5):8-14. Available from:*[All]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=2.

Anon. Revisiting the Manga Report and the Lessons Learned: Was Anyone Really Listening? Can Chiro. 2004 SEP [cited 2012 June 10]; 9(5):12 – 3. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False.

Aspegren D, Enebo BA, Miller M, White L, Akuthota V, Hyde TE, et al. Functional scores and subjective responses of injured workers with back or neck pain treated with chiropractic care in an integrative program: a retrospective analysis of 100 cases. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Nov-Dec [cited 2012 May 16]; 32(9):765-71. Available from:

Auppl EL. Corporate Wellness: Marketing Chiropractic Occupational Health Care To Industry. Todays Chiro. 2001Nov-Dec [cited 2012 June 6]; 30(5). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3.

Beck R. Occupational health promotion: a basic design. Chiropractor. 1989 Apr [cited 2012 June 10]; 2(1):17–20. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6.

Bergemann B, Cichoke A. Cost effectiveness of medical vs. chiropractic treatment of low-back injuries. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1980 Sept [cited 2012 June 6]; 3(3):143-7. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=7.

Bishop P, Quon J, Fisher C, Dvorak M. The Chiropractic Hospital-based Interventions Research Outcomes (CHIRO) Study: a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of clinical practice guidelines in the medical and chiropractic management of patients with acute mechanical low back pain. The Spine Journal 10. 2010 [cited 2011 October 6]; 1055–1064. Available from:

Blokland MP, Bolton JE, Gration J. Chiropractic Treatment in Workers with Musculoskeletal Complaints. J Neuromusculoskel Sys. 2000 Sept [cited 2012 June 3]; 8(1):17–23. Available from:*[All]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=2.

British Medical Association. This week in the BMJ. BMJ. 2005 [cited 2012 April 26]; 330: 1-2. Available from:

Bolton J, Hurst H. Prognostic factors for short-term improvement in acute and persistent musculoskeletal pain consulters in primary care. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 2011 [cited 2012 April 26]; 19(27). Available from:

Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans, R, Bouter, L. Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain and neck pain: A systematic review and best evidence synthesis (Review). Spine Journal. 2004 May [cited 2012 May20]; 4(3):335-356. Available from:

Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Leiniger B, Triano J. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report. Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 2010 [cited April 26];18(3):1-113. Available from:

Bronfort G, Evans R, Anderson A, Svendsen K, Bracha Y, Grimm R. Spinal Manipulation, Medication, or Home Exercise With Advice for Acute and Subacute Neck Pain. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2012 [cited 2012 January 7];156:1-10. Available from:

Brouillette D.L, Gurske D.T. Chiropractic Treatment of Cervical Radiculopathy Caused by a Herniated Disc. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1994 [cited 2012 June 3]; 17(2):119-123. Available from:

CAANSW. Coal Miners Injury Toll: Media Release [document on the internet]. Chiropractors’ Association of Australia (NSW) 2011 Feb [cited 2012 May 2]: 1-2. Available from:

CAA. Too many bums on seats Australian workforce told: Media Release [document on the internet]. Healthy spine, healthier life. 2012 May [cited 2012 May 27]: 1-2. Available from:

CAA. Sitting Habits of Australian Workforce- Research Summary [document on the internet]. Healthy spine, healthier life. [cited 2012 May 27]. Available from:

Canter P, Thompson Coon J, Ernst E. Cost effectiveness of complementary treatments in the United Kingdom: systematic review. BMJ. 2005 October [cited 2012 May 16]; 331: 880-881. Available from:

Cassidy D, Boyle E,  Côté P, He Y, Hogg-Johnson S, Silver F, et al. Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care: Results of a Population-Based Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study. Eur Spine Journal. 2008 [cited 2011 Dec 8]; 17: 176-183. Available from:

Chestnut J. Evidence-Based Protocols – Opportunity NOT Obstacle [document on the internet]. Australian Spinal Research Foundation. 2012 [cited 2012 June 6]: 1-4. Available from:

Choudhry N, Milstein A. Do Chiropractic Physician Services for Treatment of Low Back and Neck Pain Improve the Value of Health Benefit Plans: An Evidence-Based Assessment of Incremental Impact on Population Health and Total Health Care Spending [document on the internet]. Foundation of Chiropractic Process. 2009 October [cited 2012 May 16]: 1-16. Available from:

Christensen K, Buswell K. Chiropractic outcomes managing radiculopathy in a hospital setting: a retrospective review of 162 patients. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2008 [cited 2012 April 26]; 7: 115-125. Available from:

Cibulka M, Rose S,  Delitto A, Sinacore D. Hamstring muscle strain treated by mobilizing the sacroiliac joint. Phys Ther. 1986 August [cited 21012 May 16];66(8):1220-3. Available from:

Cichoke A, West H. A comparative study of time-loss back claims. ACA J Chiro. 1978 Dec [cited 2012 June 3]; 15(12):17-8. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=7

Cichoke A. The myofascial pain syndrome in occupational musculoskeletal back injuries, the undesirable effects of cortisone therapy, and alternative health care. Chiropractor. 1990 April [cited 2012 June 6]; 6(1):10-3. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Cifuentes M, Willetts J,Wasiak R. Health Maintenance Care in Work-Related Low Back Pain and Its Association With Disability Recurrence. JOEM. 2011 April [cited 2012 May 16]; 53(4):396-404. Available from:

Validating Chiropractic: Collection of research articles on Chiropractic [document on the internet]. International Chiropractors Organisation. [Cited 2012 April 26]. Available from:

Cote P, Clarke J, Deguire S, Frank JW, Yassi A. Chiropractors and Return-To-Work: The Experiences of Three Canadian Focus Groups. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2001 June [cited 2012 June 3]; 24(5):309–16. Available from:*[All]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=2

Cote P, Baldwin M, Johnson WG. Early Patterns of Care for Occupational Back Pain. Spine. 2005 March 1 [cited 2012 June 10]; 30(5):581-7. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Peter W. Cost-Effective Care: The Evidence Mounts. Dynamic Chiropractor. September 9, 2009 [cited 2012 May 16]; 27(19):1-2. Available from:

Dagenais S, Caro J, Haldeman S. A systematic review of low back pain cost of illness studies in the United States and internationally. The Spine Journal 8 (2008) [cited 2012 May 16];8–20. Available from:

De Coster L, Ebrall P. A Description of WorkCare Claims Where Chiropractors Wrote the Initiating Certificate: Victoria 1990/91. Chiropractic J Australia 1993 March [cited 2012 May 16];23(1):33-37. Available from:

Descarreaux M, Bloui J, Drolet M, Papadimitriou S, Teasdale N. Efficacy of Preventive Spinal Manipulation for Chronic Low-Back Pain and Related Disabilities: A Preliminary Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutic. October 2004 [cited 2012 May 16]; 27(8):509-514. Available from:

Donkin S. Will Ergonomic Evolution Wait for Chiropractic? J Chiro. 1993 Nov [cited 2012 June 10]; 30(11):5,8,106-5,8,106. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6.

Doxey T, Jarvis K, Phillips R. Cost Comparison of Low Back Care By Provider Type: Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation [document on the internet]. 1996 OCT [cited 2012 June 10];85-6. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Ebrall P. Pre-Employment Musculoskeletal Assessment: The Imperative for Outcome Studies. Chir J of Aust.  1992 March [cited 2012 June 10]; 22(1):9-14. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Ebrall P. Mechanical Low-Back Pain: A Comparison of Medical and Chiropractic Management Within the Victorian WorkCare Scheme. Chiropractic J Aust. 1992 June [cited 2012 May 16]; 22(2):47-53. Available from:

Ebrall P. Residual Disability from Delayed Manipulative Treatment for Mechanical Low-Back Pain: A Case Review. Chiro J of Aust.  1993 June [cited 2012 June 3]; 23(2):54-8. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=4

Editorial Staff. Chiropractic vs. Medicine for Acute LBP: No Contest. Dynamic Chiropractic. March 12, 2011 [cited 2012 May 16]; 29(06). Available from:

BenEliyahu DJ. Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical follow-up: study of 27 patients receiving chiropractic care for cervical and lumbar disc herniations. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1996 Nov-Dec [cited 2012 May 16]; 19(9):597-606. Available from:

Engers A, Jellema P, Wensing M, van der Windt D, Grol R, van Tulder M. Individual Patient Education for low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008 [cited 2012 May 16]; (1):1-2. Available from:

Eriksen K, Rochester R, Hurwitz E. Symptomatic reactions, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction associated with upper cervical chiropractic care: A prospective, multicenter, cohort study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011 [cited 2012 May 16]; 12:219. Available from:

Estadt G. Chiropractic/Rehabilitative Management of Post-Surgical Disc Herniation: A Retrospective Case Report. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2004 [cited 2012 May 20]; 3(3): 108-115. Available from:

Evans R. The Injured Worker: Role of the Chiropractor. J Aust Chiropr Assoc. 1985 Jun [cited 2012 May 2];15(2):49-54. Available from:

Ferreira M, Ferreira P, Latimer J, Herbert R, Maher C. Efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain of less than three months’ duration. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2003 November [cited 2012 May 20]; 26 (9): 593-601. Available from:

Feuerstein M, Marcus S, Huang G. National trends in nonoperative care for nonspecific back pain. The Spine Journal 4. 2004 [cited 2012 April 26]: 56–63. Available from:

Floto J. Return of Disabled Worker to the Workforce. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2004 [cited 2012 June 3]; 3(1):20–24. Available from:

Fowler R. Recommendations for management of uncomplicated back pain in the workers’ compensation system: a focus on functional restoration. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2004 [cited 2012 May 4]; 3(4):129-137. Available from:

Freedman A, Cork B. The Role of Chiropractic Pre-Employment Examinations in Occupational Health and Safety. J Aust Chiropr Assoc . 1989 September [cited 2012 May 2]; 19(3):87-91. Available from:

Freedman A. The Developing Role of the Chiropractor in Occupational Health. J Aust Chiropr Assoc.  1990 June [cited 2012 May 2];20(2):56-61. Available from:

Gatterman M. The Patient-Centred Paradigm: A Model for Chiropractic Health Promotion and Wellness. Chiropr J Aust. 2006 [cited 2012 May 16]; 36:92-6. Available from:

Gemmell H, Miller P. Relative effectiveness and adverse effects of cervical manipulation, mobilisation and the activator instrument in patients with sub-acute non-specific neck pain: results from a stopped randomised trial. Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 2010 [cited 2012 May 16]; 18(20): 1-14. Available from:

Gilkey D, Williams H. Chemical Safety in the Workplace. J Amer Chiro Assoc. 1995 Dec [cited 2012 June 6]; 32(12):45-7. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=4

Gilkey D. Chiropractic Occupational Health and Safety: What Roles Can DCs Play? Dynamic Chiro. 1996 Oct [cited 2012 June 6]; 14(22). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=4

Gilkey D. Occupational Health and Safety. Dynamic Chiro. 1996 Sept 23 [cited 2012 June 6]; 14(2).*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=4

Gilkey D. Occupational Health and Safety Programs for the Workplace. Dynamic Chiro. 1996 Nov 18 [cited 2012 June 6]; 14(24). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=4

Grieves B,  Menke M, Pursel K. Cost Minimization Analysis of Low Back Pain Claims Data for Chiropractic vs Medicine in a Managed Care Organization. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 [cited 2012 May 3]; 32(9):734-739. Available from:

Gromala T. Who are the chiropractic occupational health consultants and what do they do? J Chrio. 1991 Jan [cited 2012 June 10]; 28(1):45–49. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Gross A, Miller J, D’Sylva J, Burnie SJ, Goldsmith CH, Graham N et al. Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain (Review). The Cochrane Library. 2010 [cited 2012 May 16]; (5):1-110. Available from:

Gudavalli M, Cambron J, McGregor M, Jedlicka J, Keenum M,  Ghanayem A et al. A randomized clinical trial and subgroup analysis to compare flexion–distraction with active exercise for chronic low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2006 [cited 2012 May 4]; 15:1070–1082. Available from:

Haas M, Groupp E, Kraemer D. Dose-response for chiropractic care of chronic low back pain. The Spine Journal 4. 2004 [cited 2008 September 10]; 574–583. Available from:

Haas M, Sharma R, Stano M. Cost-Effectiveness of Medical and Chiropractic Care for Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2005 Oct [cited 2012 May 20]; 28(8):555-563. Available from:

Haavik H, Murphy B. Subclinical neck pain and the effects of cervical manipulation on elbow joint position sense. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2011 Feb [cited 2012 June 6];34(2):88-97. Available from:

Hansson T, Hansson E. The Effects of Common Medical Interventions on Pain, Back Function, and Work Resumption in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Prospective 2-Year Cohort Study in Six Countries. Spine. 2000 [cited 2012 April 26]; 25(23):3055–3064. Available from:

Heller F. The industrial challenge: We can make a difference. J Chiro. 1991 Jan [cited 2012 June 10]; 28(1):57–58. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Henriksen CC. Case Studies: On-Site Chiropractic Care. Todays Chiro. 2001 Nov-Dec [cited 2012 June 6]; 30(5). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Hoiriis K, Pfleger B, McDuffie F, Cotsonis G, Elsangak O, Hinson R et al. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Chiropractic Adjustments to Muscle Relaxants for Subacute Low Back Pain. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2004 July [cited 2012 May 16]; 27(6):388-398. Available from:

Homack D. Development of an Occupational Health Course for the Chiropractic Student. J Chiro Educ. 2001 Sept [cited 2012 June 6]; 15(1):10-10. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Hondras M, Long C, Cao Y, Rowell R, Meeker W. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 2 Types of Spinal Manipulation and Minimal Conservative Medical Care for Adults 55 Years and Older With Subacute or Chronic Low Back Pain. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Theraputics. 2009 June [cited 2012 May 15]; 32(5):330-343. Available from:

Hoskins W, McHardy A, Pollard H, Windsham R, Onley R. Chiropractic research on peripheral treatment: A review of lower limb interventions. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2006 Dec [cited 2008 November 11]; 9:37. Available from:

Hoskins W, Pollard H. The effect of sports chiropractic on the primary prevention of hamstring injuries: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2006 Dec [cited 2008 November 11]; 9:37. Available from:

Hoskins W, Pollard H. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2010 [cited 2011 December 20]; 11(64):1-11. Available from:

Hunt G, English R. Removal of Initiating First Medical Certification Entitlement from Chiropractors Under the State of Victoria Accident Compensation (WorkCover) Scheme: The Impact on. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1994 May [cited 2012 June 10]; 17(4):281-281. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Jamison J, McKay E, Rodes C. Workers Compensation 1986-The Perception of Victorian Chiropractors. J Aust Chiropr Assoc. 1987 Dec; [cited 2012 May 2];17(4):145-50. Available from:

Jamison J. Expectations: A Case Study Describing the Outcome Expectations of Chiropractors and Their Patients. Chir J of Aust. 2001 Dec [cited 2012 June 3]; 31(4):133–8. Available from:*[All]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=2

Jamison J. Chiropractic management: Beyond manual care. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2002 June [cited 2012 June 10]; 25(5). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Jarvis K, Phillips R, Morris E. Cost per case comparison of back injury claims of chiropractic versus medical management for conditions with identical diagnostic codes. J Occup Med. 1991 Aug [cited 2012 May 16];33(8):847-52. Available from:

Jarvis KB, Phillips RB, Danielson C. Managed Care Preapproval and Its Effect on the Cost of Utah Worker Compensation Claims. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997 July [cited 2012 June 3]; 20(6):372-6. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Jay T, Jones S, Coef N, Breen A. A chiropractic service arrangement for musculoskeletal complaints in industry: a pilot study. Occup. Med. 1998 [cited 2012 June 13]; 48(6):389-395. Available from:

Johnson M, Schultz M, Ferguson A. A comparison of chiropractic, medical and osteopathic care for work-related sprains and strains. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1989 Oct [cited 2012 June 6]; 12(5):335-344. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Lawrence D, Meeker W. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review. Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 2007 [cited 2012 May 15]; 15:2. Available from:

Lawrence D, Meeker W, Branson R, Bronfort G, Cates J, Haas M, et al. Chiropractic Management of Low Back Pain and Low Back- Related Leg Complaints: A literature Synthesis. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2008 Nov/Dec [cited 2012 April 26]; 31(9):659-674. Available from:

Legorreta A, Metz D, Nelson C, Ray S, Chernicoff H, DiNubile N. Comparative Analysis of Individuals With and Without Chiropractic Coverage Patient Characteristics, Utilization, and Costs. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Oct 11 [cited 2012 May 16];164: 1985-1992. Available from:

Lemstra M, Olszynski P. The Effectiveness of Standard Care, Early Intervention, and Occupational Management in Worker’s Compensation Claims. Spine. 2003 [cited 2012 June 3]; 28(3):299–304. Available from:,_Early.20.aspx

Liebenson C. Rehabilitation and chiropractic practice. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1996 Feb [cited 2012 May 16];19(2):134-40. Available from:

Lukacs C. Occupational Health: Using Technology Safely. Amer Chiro Asoc News. 2011 Oct [cited 2012 June 6]; 7(10). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Manga P, Angus D, Papadopoulos C, Swan W. A Study to Examine the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Chiropractic Management of Low-Back Pain [document on the internet]. 1993 August [cited 2012 May 2]. Available from:

Manga P, Angus D, Swan W. Findings and Recommendations From an Independent Review of Chiropractic Management of Low Back Pain. J Neuromusculoskel Sys. 1994 Sept [cited 2012 June 10]; 2(1):1-8. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=7

Markham D. How to Start a Wellness Program with Local Businesses. Dynamic Chiro. 1991 March 29 [cited 2012 June 10]; 9(7).*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=7.

McKechnie B. Chiropractic’s Impact on Workers’ Compensation in Texas. Dynamic Chiro. 1991 Nov 11 [cited 2012 June 10]; 9(23).*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=7

Meade T, Dyer S, Browne W, Townsend J, Frank A. Low back pain of mechanical origin: randomised comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. BMJ. 1990 [cited 2012 June 13]; (300): 1431-1437. Available from:

Meade T, Dyer S, Browne W, Frank A. Randomised comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient management for low back pain: results from extended follow up. BMJ. 1985 August 5 [cited 2012 May 2]; 311:349-351. Available from:

Metz D, Nelson C, LaBrot T, Pelletier K. Chiropractic Care : Is It Substitution Care or Add-on Care in Corporate Medical Plans? JOEM. 2004 August [cited 2012 May 16]; 46(8):847-855. Available from:

Miller K, Hinton T. Hidden Costs of Workers’ Compensation. J Amer Chiro Assoc. 1995 Nov [cited 2012 June 3]; 32(11):21-4. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Mootz R. Occupational Health Care: A Niche Worth Exploring. Dynamic Chiro. 2001 Feb 12 [cited 2012 June 6]; 19(4). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Morris C. Chiropractic rehabilitation of a patient with S1 radiculopathy associated with a large lumbar disk herniation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999 [cited 2012 May 16];22:38–44. Available from:

Muller R, Giles L. Long-Term Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Medication, Acupuncture, and Spinal Manipulation for Chronic Mechanical Spinal Pain Syndromes. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2005 Jan [cited 2012 May 20]; 28(1):3-11. Available from:

Murphy D, Rosenblum A. Return to work after two years of total disability: A case report. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. 2006 June [cited 2012 June 3]; 16(2):253-260. Available from:

Murphy D. Current understanding of the relationship between cervical manipulation and stroke: what does it mean for the chiropractic profession? Murphy Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 2010 [cited 2012 May 16]; 18:22. Available from:

North American Spine Society Board of Directors. Spine Patient Outcome Research Trial (SPORT): Multi-center randomized clinical trial of surgical and non-surgical approaches to the treatment of low back pain. The Spine Journal. 2003 [cited 2012 April 24]; (3)417–419. Available from:

Nyiendo J. Disabling Low Back Oregon Workers’ Compensation Claims. Part II: Time Loss. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1991 May [cited 2012 June 10]; 14(4):231-9. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=7

Panter J. Inside The World Of The Chiropractic Occupational Health Consultant. Todays Chiro. 2001 Nov-Dec [cited 2012 June 6]; 30(5). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Paskowski I, Schneider M, Stevans J, Ventura J, Justice B. A Hospital-Based Standardized Spine Care Pathway: Report of a Multidisiplinary, Evidence-Based Process. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2011 Feb [cited 2012 April 24]; 34(2):98-106. Available from:

Petersen D. Are Chiropractors Protecting Patients From Medical Care? Dynamic Chiropractic. 2011 May 20 [cited 2012 May 16]; 29(11):1-3. Available from:

Phelan S, Armstrong R, Knox D, Hubka M, Ainbinder D. An evaluation of medical and chiropractic provider utilization costs: Treating injured workers in North Carolina (Review). Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2004 Sept [cited 2012 June 3]; 27(7):442-448. Available from:*+AND+%28cost+effectiveness%29&nlo=&nlr=&nls=&sid=IOTd85Yyb2H0f3LItgiE6WO%3a140&sot=q&sdt=b&sl=54&s=TITLEABSKEYAUTH%28chiropra*+AND+%28cost+effectiveness%29%29&relpos=88&relpos=88&searchTerm=TITLEABSKEYAUTH(chiropra*%20AND%20(cost%20effectiveness))

Pillastrini P, Mugnai R, Bertozzi L, Costi S, Curti SURTI1, Stefano Mattioli, Violante F. Effectiveness of an at-work Exercise Program in the Prevention and Management of Neck and Low Back Complaints in Nursery School Teachers. Industrial Health. 2009 [cited 2012 May 30]; 47:349–354. Available from:

Pollard H, de Luca K. A descriptive report of management strategies used by chiropractors, as reviewed by a single independent chiropractic consultant in the Australian workers compensation system. Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 2009 [cited 2012 May 4]; 17:12. Available from:

Caton H. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: the consumer perspective [a document on the internet]. 2003 [cited 2012 April 26]. Available from:

Riva J, Muller G, Hornich A, Mior S, Gupta A, Burnie S. Chiropractors and collaborative care: An overview illustrated with a case report. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2010 [cited 2012 May 9]; 54(3):147-154. Available from:

Rosa J. Managing Workers’ Compensation Injuries. Chiropractors Can Make a Critical Difference. J Amer Chiro Assoc. 1998 June [cited 2012 June 3]; 35(6):18,20-2. Available from:*[All]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=2

Rosner A. Where the Money Is. Dynamic Chiropractic. 2009 Oct 21 [cited 2012 May 16]; 27(22). Available from:

Rubinstein S, Leboeuf-Yde, Knol D, de Koekkoek T, Pfeifle C, van Tulder M. The Benefits Outweight the Risks For Patients Undergoing Chiropractic Care For Neck Pain: A Prospective, Multicenter, Cohort Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics.  2007 July/August [cited 2012 May 16]; 30(6). Available from:

Rubinstein S, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft W, de Boer M, van Tulder M. Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain (Review). The Cochrane Library. 2011 [cited 2012 May 16]; (6). Available from:

Sarnat R, Winterstein J. Clinical and Cost Outcomes of an Integrative Medicine IPA. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2004 June [cited 2012 May 16]; 27(5):336-347. Available from:

Sarnat R, Winterstein J, Cambron J. Clinical Utilization and Cost Outcomes From an Integrative Medicine Independent Physician Association: An Additional 3-Year Update. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics.  2007 May [cited 2012 May 16]; 30(4):263-269. Available from:

Saxton WT. Occupational Health Care Testing. Dyanamic Chiro. 2001 Nov 19 [cited 2012 June 6]; 19(24). Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Schoen J, Klesmit T. Chiropractic’s Future Survival in Industry. J Amer Chir Assoc. 1995 Nov [cited 2012 June 3]; 32(11):55–7. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Schwab M. Chiropractic management of a 47-year–old firefighter with lumbar disk extrusion. J Chiro Med. 2008 Dec [cited 2012 June 6]; 7(4):146-154. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Senna M, Machaly S. Does maintained spinal manipulation therapy for chronic nonspecific low back pain result in better long-term outcome? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Aug 15 [cited 2012 May 16];36(18):1427-37. Available from:

Sharma R, Haas M, Stano M, Spegman A, Gehring R. Determinants of costs and pain improvement for medical and chiropractic care of low back pain. J Manipulative Physiol  Ther. 2009 MAY [cited 2012 June 10]; 32(4):252-61. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Shekelle P, Adams A, Chassin M, Hurwitz E, Phillips R, Brook R. The Appropriateness of Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain: Project Overview and Literature Review [document on the internet]. RAND. 1991 [cited 2012 May 2]. Available from:

Simpson J. A Study of Referral Patterns Among Queensland General Medical Practitioners to Chiropractors, Osteopaths, Physiotherapists and Others. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998 May [cited 2012 June 10]; 21(4):225–31. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False.

Singer R. Ergonomics: Your Chair and You. J Chiro. 1993 Nov [cited 2012 June 10]; 30(11):29–31. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Skargren E, Öberg B, Carlsson P, Gade M. Cost and Effectiveness Analysis of Chiropractic and Physiotherapy Treatment for Low Back and Neck Pain: Six-Month Follow-Up. Spine. 1997 Sept 15 [cited 2012 June 3]; 22(18):2167-2177. Available from:

Skargren E, Öberg B, Carlsson P, Gade M. One-Year Follow-up Comparison of the Cost and Effectiveness of Chiropractic and Physiotherapy as Primary Management for Back Pain: Subgroup Analysis, Recurrence, and Additional Health Care Utilization. Spine. 1998 Sept 1 [cited 2012 June 3]; 23(17):1875-1883. Available from:

Smith M, Stano M. Costs and recurrences of chiropractic and medical episodes of low-back care. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997 Jan [cited 2012 June 13];20(1):5-12. Availble from:

Smith J. Fighting to help lower costs: Making a financial case for chiropractic. J Chiropr Med . 2002 [cited 2012 June 13]; 4(1):189-198. Available from:

Stano M, Smith M. Chiropractic and medical costs of low back care. Med Care. 1996 March [cited 2012 May 2]; 34(3):191-204. Available from:

Sweere J. Occupational chiropractic: A glimpse into the new millennium. J Chiro. 1991 Jan [cited 2012 June 10]; 28(1):29–33. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Talcott T. MDs and DCs: An Evolution of Cooperation. J Amer Chir Assoc. 1995 Apr [cited 2012 June 3]; 32(4):21-4. Available from :*[all]%20AND%20%28worker%27s%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=3

Chapman-Smith D. California Study Confirms Cost Effectiveness. The Chiropractic Report. 2004 Nov [cited 2012 May 6]; 18(6):1-8. Available from:

Chapman-Smith D. Patient Satisfaction with Chiropractic Care. The Chiropractic Report. 2007 Jan [cited 2012 May 6]; 21(1):1-8. Available from:

Chapman-Smith D. The Role of Sports Chiropractic. The Chiropractic Report. 2008 July [cited 2012 May 6]; 22(4):1-8. Available from:

Chapman-Smith D. Cost-Effectiveness Revisited. The Chiropractic Report. 2009 Nov [cited 2012 May 16]; 23(6):1-8. Available from:

Chapman-Smith D. Sports Chiropractic: Preventing Hamstring Injuries. The Chiropractic Report. 2010 May [cited 2012 May 6]; 24(3):1-8. Available from:

Chapman-Smith D. Collaborative Practice: Challenges and Opportunities.  The Chiropractic Report. 2011 Jan [cited 2012 May 6]; 25(1):1-8. Available from:

Chapman-Smith D. Continuing Care and Therapeutic Need. The Chiropractic Report. 2011 March [cited 2012 May 6]; 25(2):1-8. Available from:

Thiel H, Bolton J. Predictors for Immediate and Global Responses to Chiropractic Manipulation of the Cervical Spine. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2008 March [cited 2012 May 20]; 31(3):172-183. Available from:

Tuchin P, Bonello R. Preliminary Findings of Analysis of Chiropractic Utilization and Cost in the Workers’ Compensation System of New South Wales, Australia. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995 Oct [cited 2012 June 10]; 18(8):503-11. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Tuchin P, Bonello R. Preliminary findings of analysis of chiropractic utilization and cost in the workers’ compensation system of New South Wales, Australia [document on the internet]. National Institute for Health Research. 1997 [cited 2012 June 3]. Available from:

Tuchin P. Spinal Care Education as a Preventative Strategy for Occupational Health and Safety: A New Role for Chiropractors. ACO. 1998 March [cited 2012 May 4]; 7(1):8-14. Available from:

Venditti P, Smith D. Ergonomics: Techniques for Analysis. J Chiro. 1993 Nov [cited 2012 June 10]; 30(11):22-6. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Vincent R. Workers’ Compensation: A Meaningful Niche. J Chiro. 1993 Nov [cited 2012 June 10]; 30(11):27–8. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=6

Walker B, Muller R, Grant W. Low Back Pain in Australian Adults: Health Provider Utilization and Care Seeking. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2004 June [cited 2008 July 9]; 27(5):327-335. Available from:

Walker BF, French SD, Grant W, Green S. Combined chiropractic interventions for low-back pain (Review). The Cochrane Library. 2011 [cited 2012 May 16]; (2). Available from:

Walsh M. General Health Status as Measured by the SF-36 of Patients with Spinal Disorders: A Chiropractic Perspective. Chiropr J Aust. 2007 [cited 2012 May 16]; 37:100-105. Available from:

Walsh M, Reece J, Donnoli F. General Health Status of a Sample of Chiropractic Patients with Uncomplicated Biomechanical Neck or Low Back Pain. Chiropr J Aust. 2008 [cited 2012 May 16]; 38:75-80. Available from:

Wasiak R, Kim J, Pransky G. The association between timing and duration of chiropractic care in workrelated low back pain and work-disability outcomes. J Occup Environ Med. 2007 Oct; 49(10):1124-34. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28workers%20compensation[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False

Whalen W. Resolution of cervical radiculopathy in a woman after chiropractic manipulation. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2008 March [cited 2012 May 20]; 7(1):17-23. Available from:

Williams H. Working in Confined Spaces. J Amer Chir Assoc. 1996 Nov [cited 2012 June 6]; 33(11):30-1. Available from:*[all]%20AND%20%28occupational%20health[all]%29&Discipline=Any&Language=Any&YRbegin=1800&YRend=2012&Order=date&Display=20&Refereed=False&Page=4

Wilson K, Swincer K, Vemulpad S. Public Perception of Chiropractic: A Survey. Chiropractic journal of Australia. 2007 [cited 2012 May 16]; 34(4):135-140. Available from:

Wolsko P, Eisenberg D, Davis R, Kessler R, Phillips R. Patterns and perceptions of care for treatment of back and neck pain: results of a national survey. Spine. 2003 Feb 1 [cited 2012 June 13];28(3):292-8. Available from:


Member login