Lumbar muscle stiffness is different in individuals with low back pain than asymptomatic controls and is associated with pain and disability, but not common physical examination findings.

Koppenhaver S, Gaffney E, Oates A, Eberle L, Young B, Hebert J, Proulx L, Shinohara M. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2019 Nov 1;45:102078. doi: 10.1016/j.msksp.2019.102078

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