Chiropractic Australia

grants + recipients

PhD Scholarship Recipient /
Laura Montgomery, DC


Laura Montgomery, DC




Macquarie University


PhD Candidate


Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is more prevalent than previously thought in children and adolescents.1-4 Non-communicable diseases, including MSK pain, are becoming the dominant health problem.4 The prevention and early detection of MSK pain through a clear understanding of risk and prognostic factors are necessary and has become a research focus in adults.5 Although, research in this area in children and adolescents is lacking.6

Commonly society places blame on biomechanical factors as the cause of MSK pain. For example, anthropometric factors, hypermobility, poor posture and backpacks. Evidence suggests this may be misguided.7,8 MSK pain is associated with poor health more broadly, often co-existing with obesity, low levels of physical activity, substance abuse and mental health issues.7,9 Thus, MSK pain aetiology would better fit within a biopsychosocial framework where lifestyle, behavioural and psychological risk factors are considered.3,5,7

A clear understanding of risk and prognostic factors for MSK pain in children and adolescents can assist in pain management, prevention and early intervention opportunities. Especially for primary care clinicians, including Chiropractors, who are often the first point of contact for children and adolescents with MSK pain.3


  1. Kamper S.J., Henschke N., Hestbaek L., et al. Musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents. Braz J Phys Ther 2016;20(3):275-84.
  2. Swain M.S., Henschke N., Kamper S.J., et al. An international survey of pain in adolescents. BMC Public Health 2014;14:447.
  3. Kamper S.J., Williams C.M. Musculoskeletal Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Way Forward. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2017;47(10):702-04.
  4. Patton G.C., Sawyer S.M., Santelli J.S., et al. Our future: a Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. Lancet (London, England) 2016;387(10036):2423-78.
  5. Huguet A., Tougas M.E., Hayden J., et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis of childhood and adolescent risk and prognostic factors for musculoskeletal pain. Pain 2016;157(12):2640-56.
  6. Foster N.E., Anema J.R., Cherkin D., et al. Prevention and treatment of low back pain: evidence, challenges, and promising directions. Lancet (London, England) 2018;391(10137):2368-83.
  7. Williams C.M., Kamper S.J. A Broader Perspective of Musculoskeletal Conditions in Children. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2017;47(10):699-701.
  8. Kamper S.J., Yamato T.P., Williams C.M. The prevalence, risk factors, prognosis and treatment for back pain in children and adolescents: An overview of systematic reviews. Best Pract Res Cl Rh 2016;30(6):1021-36.
  9. Kamper SJ M.Z., Campbell P, Dunn KM, Yamato TP, Hodder RK, Wiggers J, Williams CM. Back pain, mental health and substance use are associated in adolescents. J Public Health 2018



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